Chapter 3

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indentured servant

A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.

melting pot

the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.

gender ratio

number of males per 100 females in a populations.

naval stores

products used to make or repair ships

"invisible" charges

Charges that people put on another person that they didnt actually commit because they are mad at you

headright system

The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land

natural increase

population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements

staple crop

crops grown for commercial sale, usually produced in a colonial area and sold in europe. Most important crop grown in that area.

balance of trade

the difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise

triangular trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

promissory note

a written contract with a promise to pay a supplier a specific sum of money at a definite time

township

A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.

established church

the church that is recognized as the official church of a nation

covenant theory

This theory made in the 17th and 18th centuries stated that god made a covenant or pact with "the elect" that when man fell, the elect would be saved.

Half-Way Covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.

The Enlightenment

A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.

heliocentric universe

sun center of universe; developed by copernicus

Isaac Newton

English mathematician and physicist

John Locke

English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)

Deist

a person who believes that God created the universe and then abandoned it

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)

George Whitefield

Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."

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