Geocentric Universe, Humans at one end of the universe, God at the other
Moon orbits Earth, thought universe was Heliocentric or sun centered.
He took his theories back so he wasn't excommunicated from the church. Invented a more advanced telescope and confirmed hypothesis of Copernicus in the early 17th century.
Proved laws of motion, and gravity.
Discovered the circulation of blood. Published findings on experiments done with anatomy and circulatory system.
Was inspired by monastary floor plan and named the building block of living things cells.
He created a more sophisticated microscope that enabled scientists to examine microorganisims.
Created a system of classifying living things called taxonomy.
Bacon and Descartes
Clamed that the Scientific Method would free people from ignorance.
Earth Centered (Church's way, everything revolves around the human race)
Sun Centered (True way, Gaileo and Copernicus proved it, but church didn't want anything to do with it.)
He encouraged public education, freedom of the press, and the natural rights of life, liverty, and the ownership of property. (Grandfather of the Enlightenment)
Suggested a therory of government that involved people sacrificing some of their rights in order to serve the common good.
Proposed separation of power within a government in the for of executive, legislative, and judicial powers.
Theorized that governments should stay out of the economy and let the forces of supply and demand control the market.
Freedom of speech: "I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
Published the first encyclopedia, controversial because people used it as a reference rather than the Bible.
Gathering of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment. Usually in homes.
Social world of the Enlightenment
People read books, newspapers, magazines. Wealthy know most about the Enlightenment.
Effects of the Enlightenment
Planted seeds in the heads of people who were sick of the old way of monarchies.
Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women, English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women.
New Protestant churches, John Welsley preaches Methodisim, many people converted.
These scientists challenged traditional religion by beliving that the universe was not created by God, but by an alternative supreme being much like a clockmaker.
A monarchy with a long period of misused money. Economic depression. Trade down, poor harvests, food shortages hunger, unemployment. Enlightement planted ideas in peoples heads that they had rights.
Causes of French Revolution
Three Estates, 97% of population in lower class. Excessive money spent by monarchy. Funded many wars, lost territories, borrowing money and increasing taxes on already poor 3rd estate.
This is the social class that represented 97% of the population of culture.
First and Second Estates made all political desicions. French and Indian War, helped out in American Revolution. (spending money!)
3rd estate was the only estate that had to pay taxes. (the poor people paid the rich)
Excessive government spending, lavish lifestyle and wars. Bad crops and harvest.
People have ideas in their heads about how they can have rights.
Causes in Sequential order
France Sends financial & physical support to the American colonists in the American Revolution. King Louis XVI calls for a meeting of the Estates General (Nothing Happens). Storming of the Bastille (a prison, killed the governer and put his head on a stick) The national assembly is locked out of their meeting place and take the "Tennis Court Oath", the National Assembly writes the Declaration of the rights of Man and the Citizens.
King Louis XVI
Unpopular policies, charging taxes, helped trigger the french revolution. Married to Marie Antoinette, eager to avenge grandfather, not fit for a king.
French Queen & wife of Louis XVI, member of the royal family of Austria & unpopular among the Frech, known as "Madame Decicit" due to her excessive spending habits.
The Middle Class
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge by the members of France's National Assembly who vowed to meet until they made a new constitution.