A young athlete is admitted to the hospital with diarrhea, vomiting, bone and joint pain, hyperglycemia, and tingling sensations. What is the problem?
overdose of vitamin or mineral supplements
Carbohydrates can be converted into nucleic acid T/F
False (amino acid true)
Proteins are essential for production of energy T/F
False (enzymes hormones hemoglobin true)
The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins T/F
A negative nitrogen balance occurs when protein breakdown excels protein synthesis T/F
The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides. T/F
The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine. T/F
False (protein breakdown equals synthesis True)
The body requires adequate supplies of only three minerals (calcium, sodium, chloride) and trace amounts of all others. T/F
False (several minerals)
A deficit of potassium can cause rickets. T/F
False (calcium True)
______ is a Ten-step enzymatically driven process that converts glucose into pyruvic acid
Small amounts of ATP are formed by _____
Substrate level phosphorylation
During glucose oxidation, pyruvic acid decomposes to CO2 in the ______
The _______ produces the most ATP generation during cellular respiration and requires oxygen
electron transport chain
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
Oxidation reduction reactions may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons T/F
In the electron transport chain, ATP is formed by _________
Lipogenesis occurs when ATP and glucose levels are low T/F
Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.
Proteins yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized T/F
False (fats True)
Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway. T/F
Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. T/F
Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the Krebs cycle. T/F
Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. T/F
The process of splitting glucose through a series of steps that produces two pyruvic acid molecules is called ________.
Glycolysis is a series of six chemical steps, most of which take place in the mitochondria. T/F
False (10 true)
Glycolysis is a series of six chemical steps, most of which take place in the mitochondria. T/F
false (little protein)
arbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways. T/F
Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
Absorption of glucose from the GI tract is a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state T/F
The omega-3 fatty acids have a powerful antiarrhythmic effect on the heart and also make blood platelets less sticky, thus helping to prevent spontaneous clotting, and they lower blood pressure. T/F
Chopping wood on a hot but breezy afternoon, John stumbled into the house and immediately fainted. His T-shirt was wringing wet with perspiration, pulse was faint and rapid. heat stroke or heat exhaustion? What should you do to help John's recovery?
Heat exhaustion. To help his recovery, he should be given fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy and should be cooled down.
Vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels is a heat loss mechanism T/F
False (dilation true)
________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.
Vitamin B is a fat soluble vitamin T/F
False (water soluble)
Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?
Redox reactions are characterized by what?
are characterized by one substance gaining an electron while another substance loses an electron
Citric acid is an end product of the Krebs cycle T/F
False (NADH FADH2 CO2)
The electron transport chain occurs in the mitochondria T/F
Which hormone directs essentially all events of the absorptive state?
______ are considered "bad" cholesterol; high blood levels are believed to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.
Gluconeogenesis is not a pathway in the oxidation of glucose T/F
Which nutrients are the most important anabolic nutrients?
Dilation of cutaneous blood vessels would increase body temperature T/F
Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis. T/F
False (Glycolysis only yields two ATP molecules per oxidized molecule of glucose. The electron transport chain yields the majority of the ATP produced in the complete oxidation of glucose)
Leptin is a short-term regulator of food intake. T/F
Which hormone is called the "metabolic" hormone?
What is the primary function of cellular respiration?
to generate ATP
The body is able to form glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. T/F
A major means for conserving heat is:
vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels.
In glycolysis, glucose must be activated with the use of how many ATP molecules?
One function of vitamin A is to:
form visual pigments
The site of electron transport is themitochondrial outer membrane. T/F
False (mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The thermoregulatory center is located in the:
Which coenzymes are reduced in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
NAD derived from Niacin
Phosphorus is considered a trace mineral T/F
False (Chromium is considered a trace mineral. Glucose cannot be metabolized properly without chromium.)
Which lipoprotein contains high levels of cholesterol?
A nutritionally incomplete protein lacks:
A protein without significant amounts of the eight essential amino acids is incomplete.
What factor can make it harder for an obese person to lose weight?
An increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favor fat accumulation) in fat cells
BMR is the amount of energy the body needs to maintain life? T/F
Shivering is a physiological response to hypothermia? T/F
True (A physiological response is one that occurs subconsciously and is internally monitored.)
A kilocalorie is the amount of energy needed to:
heat one kilogram of water one degree Celsius.
The body's rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities is called the:
total metabolic rate
Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are:
obtained from an outside source because the body cannot make them.
Prolonged high protein intake can lead to:
loss of bone mass
Iron is considered a provitamin? T/F
False Iron is a mineral not a vitamin. Beta-carotene is considered a provitamin because the body can convert it to vitamin A through digestion.
Vitamin K is not stored in the body T/F
The final product of glycolysis is:
two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP.
Cyanide acts as a poison by:
interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by:
A low-density lipoprotein would contain a Low/High lipid content
high lipid content (The higher the percentage of a lipid in a lipoprotein, the lower the density.)
The role of _____________ is to transport excessive cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes part of bile.
___________ acts to suppress appetite by inhibiting _____, which is the most-powerful known appetite stimulant.
Leptin; neuropeptide Y
Enzymes/coenzymes accept hydrogen in a redox reaction.
coenzymes accept hydrogen
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant. T/F
True (Antioxidants disarm free radicals. They include A, C, and E.)
Conduction is the same as radiation heat loss. T/F
False (Conduction is the transfer of heat between objects in direct contact.)
Fermentation occurs when oxygen is NOT available. T/F
True (Fermentation results in lactic acid and frees up NAD.)
In glycolysis, glucose is initially cleaved into three, two-carbon groups. T/F
False (glucose is cleaved into two, three-carbon groups)
In order for amino acids to be converted into lipids, they must be deaminated. T/F
True (The amine group is NOT part of a lipid molecule.)
Most required nutrients can be obtained by eating bread and meats. T/F
Oxidative phosphorylation is coupled to chemiosmosis.T/F
True (Electron transport causes a chemiosmotic gradient, which causes the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.)
The role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to combine with carbon during the Krebs cycle. T/F
False (Oxygen picks up electrons at the end of the transport chain.)
When blood glucose levels fall, glucagon is released and causes glycogenesis. T/F
False (Glucagon causes glycogenolysis.)
Anabolism is a building process in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones, while catabolism is a tearing down process in which complex structures are degraded to simpler ones. T/F
True (An example of anabolism is the bonding together of amino acids to make proteins. An example of catabolism is the set of catabolic reactions in cellular respiration.)
The Krebs cycle is the partial breakdown of pyruvic acid. T/F
False (The Krebs cycle is the complete breakdown of pyruvic acid to CO2, yielding small amounts of ATP and reduced coenzymes.)
Before lipids can be metabolized, the fatty acids must undergo beta oxidation to be converted into two-carbon acetic acid fragments. T/F
True (Fatty acid chains are broken apart into two-carbon acetic acid fragments that will form acetyl-CoA.)
Gluconeogenesis occurs during cell respiration in the mitochondria. T/F
False (Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors.)
The major function of HDL is to transport excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. T/F
True (HDL transport excess cholesterol to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes part of bile.)
Calcium is a mineral. T/F
True (Any inorganic substance necessary for normal body functioning is called a mineral.)
Minerals are micronutrients (that is, a nutrient required in minute amounts), not a major nutrient? T/F
A person who is starving is likely to exhibit a negative/positive nitrogen balance
Negative (If protein breakdown exceeds the rate of protein incorporation into tissues, the individual is in a state of negative nitrogen balance. A person in a state of physical stress (such as infection, starvation, or malnutrition) will exhibit negative nitrogen balance.)
Fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic if consumed in large quantities. T/F
Absorbing nutrients into the blood from the intestines is an example of catabolism T/F
False (Cellular respiration is a catabolic process in which food fuels (energy sources) are broken down to provide ATP, which fuels cellular work.)
A substance that is reduced has lost an electron. T/F
False (In oxidation, electrons are lost; in reduction, electrons are gained. One useful mnemonic to help you remember this is OIL RIG (Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain).)
Glycolysis begins with glucose-6-phosphate. T/F
True (Glycolysis, an anaerobic process, occurs in the cytosol. The term anaerobic means that the reactions of glycolysis occur whether or not oxygen is present. Glycolysis begins with glucose-6-phosphate and ends with the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid)
Glycolysis is an aerobic process. T/F
False (Glycolysis, an anaerobic process, occurs in the cytosol. The term anaerobic means that the reactions of glycolysis occur whether or not oxygen is present. Glycolysis begins with glucose-6-phosphate and ends with the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid)
The Krebs cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2. T/F
The Krebs cycle is an anaerobic pathway. T/F
False (The Krebs cycle is an aerobic pathway that occurs in the mitochondria of cells.)
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is _____.
O2 (not water)
As proteins are broken down for energy______ is generated; the liver then converts this potentially toxic intermediate into______.
In the postabsorptive state glucose/glycogen is used
glycogen is broken down to release glucose.
______ is considered "good" cholesterol; high blood levels of this cholesterol are thought to be beneficial.
CCK is considered a long-term regulator of food intake T/F
False (Long-term control of food intake is regulated by the hormone leptin. Leptin is secreted exclusively by adipose cells in response to increased body fat.)
The body's overall rate of energy output is called the basal metabolic rate. T/F
False (BMR is the energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities, such as breathing and maintaining resting levels of organ function. The lowest metabolic state of the body, however, occurs during sleep.)
Eating a large meal would raise body temperature T/F
True (Mechanisms that raise body temperature include: constricting cutaneous capillaries to reduce the loss of heat to the environment, shivering, increasing physical activity, eating, and raised levels of certain hormones such as thyroxine.)