The ______ is the fluid portion of the blood.
Hormone production is a function of blood T/F
The main protein in blood plasma is:
Antibodies are a formed element of the blood T/F
False (erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes)
In adults, red blood cell production occurs in__________.
red bone marrow
Bilirubin is cleared from the body by which organ?
An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called__________.
You observe a large cell with a "U" shaped nucleus in a leukocyte. This cell is most likely a(n):
Hemostasis leads to a _______ of bleeding:
stoppage of bleeding
Leukocytosis is a functional characteristic of leukocytes T/F
False (amoeboid motion, diapedesis, positive chemotaxis)
Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting cascades? One is faster than the other. One is triggered by tissue damage while the other cannot be triggered by tissue damage. One leads to the production of prothrombin activator and the other does not.
one is faster than the other
Which of the following would not lead to a bleeding disorder? Impaired liver function; Excess calcium in the diet; Thrombocytopenia; Vitamin K deficiency
excess calcium in the diet
Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)? O+ female pregnant with a B+ baby; AB- female pregnant with an AB- baby.; B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.; A+ female pregnant with a B- baby.
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.
What protein involved in coagulation provides the scaffolding for tissue repair?
Which of the following does not serve as a site for blood cell production in the developing fetus? Spleen; Red bone marrow; Fetal yolk sac; Liver; Intestines
Erythrocytes lack a nucleus. T/f
All leukocytes are also lymphocytes. T/F
Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal donor?
Choose the compatible transfusion. Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood; Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood; Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood; Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
What is an embolus?
a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the blood stream
Which of the following is NOT a part of hemostasis? vascular relaxation; coagulation; vascular spasm; platelet plug formation
A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type:
The enzyme ______ digests fibrin clots.
Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?
Which of the formed elements contains hemoglobin and transports respiratory gases?
The first step in hemostasis is:
Platelet formation is regulated by:
In a centrifuged sample of blood, what makes up the buffy coat?
white blood cells and platelets
What is the average normal pH range of blood?
What is a protective function of blood?
prevention of blood loss
Which of these is not a normal plasma protein? gamma globulin; thromboplastin; albumin; fibrinogen
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis? an increased number of RBCs; hypoxia of EPO-producing cells; moving to a lower altitude; decreased tissue demand for oxygen
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is above/below/within the normal range
Place the following in correct developmental sequence:1. Reticulocyte 2. Proerythroblast 3. Normoblast 4. late erythroblast
2, 4, 3, 1
What is characteristic of all leukocytes compared to other formed elements?
they are nucleated
Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________. increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss; bleeding disorders; impaired formation of all formed elements; suppressed immunity
increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss
Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin. T/F
____ is a pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of blood clotting?
The slowest step in the clotting process is ________.
formation of prothrombin activator
Thromboembolic disorders include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system T/F
The immediate response to blood vessel injury is clotting. T/F
The process of fibrinolysis disposes of bacteria when healing has occurred. T/F
A patient complains of no energy, a chronic sore throat, a low-grade fever, and is tired and achy. His doctor notes an enlarged spleen upon examination. What diagnosis would you expect, and what definitive test would you request?
The diagnosis is infectious mononucleosis. The test would be a differential white blood cell count to look for elevated numbers of monocytes and atypical lymphocytes.
A total WBC count and a differential WBC count have been ordered for Mrs. Johnson. What information is obtained from the differential count that the total count does not provide?
The differential count determines the relative proportion of individual leukocyte types. The total WBC count indicates an increase or decrease in number of WBCs.
The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones. T/F
________ is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected.
Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas. T/F
Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs. T/F
Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion. T/F
All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes. T/F
Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion. T/F
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother? if the father is Rh-; if the child is Rh+; if the father is Rh+; if the child is type O positive
if the father is Rh-
A healthy adult male has approximately ___ liters of blood.
A major plasma protein that maintains the blood osmotic pressure is:
Granulocytes do NOT include:
Mature red blood cells in the circulating blood are filled with:
Pernicious anemia may result from:
either by absence of Vitamin B12 in diet or by deficiency of intrinsic factor (necessary to absorb B12).
The final step in clot formation is:
fibrinogen → fibrin.
The most numerous leukocyte is the:
Neutrophils make up 50-70% of the leukocyte population.
The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to white/red blood cells
Which leukocyte contains histamine in its granules?
The lifespan of platelets is between 30-60 days T/f
Which property do white blood cells have in common?
WBCs are nucleated and have a protective function.
Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have which type of anemia?
sickle cell anemia
What types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms, destroys antibody complexes, and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy?
_______ release histamine and other mediators of inflammation.
Lymphocytes are _____immune system cells that destroy the body's invaders.
The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the:
RBC's are efficient oxygen transporters because t hey generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry. T/F
Another term for reduced hemoglobin is:
Macrocytic anemia is an illustration of iron deficiency seen in individuals who have expanded their blood by increased activity. T/F
False (true is athlete's anemia. Macrocytic anemia is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.
The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:
Thromboxane A2 is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage? T/F
False (Thromboxane A2 attracts more platelets to the site of damage and increases vascular spasm in the damaged area. Prostacyclin limits the platelet plug to the immediate damaged area.)
Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused by:
An increase in the number of erythrocytes in the newborn does not cause erythroblastosis fetalis. Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy would cause erythroblastosis fetalis.
Which of the following plasma expanders would be associated with the least complications? Dextran; human serum albumin; Hetastarch; Ringer's Solution
Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the ______ Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.
Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the *D* Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.
Which antibodies would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood?
A person with AB blood has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies.
Each hemoglobin molecule has four polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two beta chains. T/F
Eosinophils are erythrocytes that fight parasitic infection or allergic reaction. T/F
False (Eosinophils are leukocytes that defend the body against parasite infections and lessen the severity of allergic reactions.)
Hemoglobin serves to transport oxygen, but NOT carbon dioxide. T/F
False (About 20% of carbon dioxide is transported bound to hemoglobin.)
Plasma contains water, proteins, nutrient molecules, and hormones. T/F
Reticulocytes are sometimes found in circulating blood and are filled with hemoglobin and some ribosomes. T/F
True (Reticulocytes are precursors of RBC.)
The buffy coat in centrifuged blood contains RBC and platelets. T/F
False (The buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets.)
The RBC count in both men and women is between 5.1 and 5.8 million per microliter of blood. T/F
False (Women have a slightly lower RBC count than men.)
Vitamin D is essential for the synthesis of RBC. T/F
False (B-complex vitamins are essential for the production of RBC.)
When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin it becomes oxyhemoglobin. T/F
One of the regulatory functions of blood is to maintain normal temperatures in body tissues. T/F
The most abundant component of plasma is protein. T/F
False (The most abundant component of plasma is water.)
Formed elements of blood include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. T/F
Hemoglobin is the protein that makes red blood cells red. T/F
Blood cell formation is referred to as hemostasis. T/F
False (Blood cell formation is referred to as hemopoiesis (or hematopoiesis).)
Dissolved proteins are an important part of blood clotting. T/F
Blood is NOT important in the regulation of the body's pH. T/F
False (Plasma proteins and bicarbonate ions are very important in maintaining pH.)
The percentage of blood volume occupied by erythrocytes is called the ________.
Albumin serves an immune system function T/F
False (It has a significant role in regulating plasma osmotic pressure. It also acts as a carrier protein and a blood buffer. Albumin is not an immunological protein.)
One molecule of hemoglobin can bind a maximum of _____ oxygen molecules.
Erythropoiesis is best defined as:
red blood cell production
Erythropoietin is made primarily by the:
Aging red blood cells are fragmented and trapped in the:
A patient who lacks intrinsic factor would likely develop:
The migration of white blood cells out of the capillary blood vessels is called:
The B cell is a lymphocyte T/F
Overproduction of white blood cells is called:
Platelets are derived from:
The extrinsic pathway of blood clotting is triggered by tissue factor. T/F
A free-floating blood clot is called a thrombus. T/F
Blood type is determined by:
glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can develop when an Rh+ woman is pregnant with an Rh- baby. T/F
False Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can develop when an Rh- mother carries an Rh+ fetus. HDN is unlikely to develop in an Rh- female's first pregnancy with an Rh+ baby. However, HDN can develop in a subsequent pregnancy with an Rh+ baby.
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin. T/F