BIOL 2111 Chapter 1 - The Human Body: An Orientation

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List subdivisions of anatomy.

Gross (systemic, surface, regional), microscopic, developmental, pathological/radiological/molecular, etc.

This subdivision of anatomy involves structures that are visible to the naked eye.

Gross anatomy

In this subdivision of gross anatomy, body structures are studied by system.

Systemic anatomy

In this subdivision of gross anatomy, structures are visible without dissection.

Surface anatomy

This subdivision of gross anatomy involves the study of relationships of organs of multiple systems within a given body region.

Regional anatomy

This subdivision of anatomy involves the study of structural changes from fetus to maturity.

Developmental anatomy

Function (physiology) always reflects structure (anatomy), a concept referred to as what?

The principle of complementarity of structure and function.

Physiological function of a system is dependent on its anatomy and the anatomy of a system is designed to fit its physiological function. Give an example.

Flow of blood throughout the body is governed by valves in the heart

List the chemical levels of structural hierarchy.

Subatomic, atoms, molecules

List the cellular levels of structural hierarchy.

Organelles, cells

List the tissue levels of structural hierarchy. List the four tissue types and their functions.

Cell, tissues. Epithelium (protection), muscle (movement), connective (support), nervous (relays information)

Of how many tissues is an organ system composed?

At least two, but usually four.

List the three highest levels of anatomical structural hierarchy.

Organs, organ systems, organismal

What are the eight functional characteristics of life?

Maintaining boundaries, movement/motility, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth.

What are the five survival needs of life?

Nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temperature, atmospheric pressure.

Define homeostasis.

Dynamic state of equilibrium, or a balance, in which internal conditions vary, but always within relatively narrow limits; "same through change"

What are three components of a reflex arc?

Receptor, control center, and effector.

In this control mechanism pathway, information (input) flows from the receptor to the control center.

Afferent

In this control mechanism pathway, information flows from the control center to the effector

Efferent

This feedback mechanism enhances the original stimulus so that the activity (output) is accelerated.

Positive feedback

In this feedback mechanism, output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.

Negative feedback

Inability to maintain homeostasis, also known as homeostatic imbalance, can lead to what?

Disease

Describe the anatomical position.

Standard body position where the body is erect with feet slightly apart, palms face forward, thumbs lateral.

This regional term describes structures that make up the main axis of the body; includes the head, neck, and trunk.

Axial

This regional term describes structures that consist of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the body's axis

Appendicular

This directional term refers to structures toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above.

Superior (cranial)

This directional term refers to structures away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.

Inferior (caudal)

This directional term refers to structures toward or at the front of the body; in front of

Anterior (ventral)

This directional term refers to structures toward or at the back of the body; behind

Posterior (dorsal)

This directional term refers to structures toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

Medial

This directional term refers to structures away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

Lateral

between a more medial and a more lateral structure

Intermediate

This directional term refers to structures closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Proximal

This directional term refers to structures farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Distal

This directional term refers to structures toward or at the body surface

Superficial (external)

This directional term refers to structures away from the body surface; more internal

Deep (internal)

This body plane creates a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.

Sagittal

A _____ plane divides the body anterior and posterior parts.

coronal (frontal)

This body plane lies vertically, dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts.

Frontal

This body plane is horizontal; creates cross sections.

Transverse

These body planes are made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical sections.

Oblique sections

The dorsal cavity consists of what two cavities?

Cranial cavity, spinal cavity

Which body cavity is the largest and most anterior? This cavity consists of what other two?

Ventral; thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

Body cavities are lined by membranes called what?

Serous membranes

List the two layers of serous membranes.

Parietal (lines body cavity), visceral (lines organ)

List the nine abdominopelvic regions.

Umbilical; epigastric; hypogastric (pubic) region; right and left iliac, or inguinal, regions; right and left lumbar region; right and left hypochondriac regions

The lower-middle portion of the abdomen.

Hypogastric region

The upper-middle portion of the abdomen

Epigastric region

The abdominal regions that are lateral to the hypogastric regions.

Right and left inguinal regions

The abdominal regions that are lateral to the umbilical regions.

Right and left lumbar regions

The abdominal regions that are lateral to the epigastric regions.

Right and left hypochondriac regions

This determines the set point and appropriate system response.

Control center

This cavity contains the stomach, intestines, and spleen.

Abdominal

This cavity contains the lungs and the heart.

Thoracic

This cavity contains the bladder and the rectum.

Pelvic

This cavity contains the brain.

Cranial

This cavity contains the spinal cord.

Vertebral

This cavity contains the teeth and tongue.

Oral

This cavity contains part of respiratory passages.

Nasal

This cavity contains the eyes.

Orbital

This cavity contains bones to transmit sound vibrations.

Middle ear cavity

This cavity is associated with knee, elbow, and other joints.

Synovial

This organ system includes the kidneys and bladder; eliminates nitrogenous wastes.

Urinary system

This organ system includes skin, hair, and nails.

Integumentary system

This organ system includes the bones, cartilages, and ligaments.

Skeletal system

This organ system includes the trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Respiratory system

This organ system includes the stomach, intestines, and liver.

Digestive system

This organ system includes the spleen and white blood cells.

Lymphatic system

A person with appendicitis will most often present with pain in which quadrant?

Right lower (right inguinal)

The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is called the _____ plane.

frontal

Approximately what percentage of the air we breathe is made of oxygen?

20%

T/F: Stimulus (cause of the initial change) is a part of the homeostatic control system.

False. The three components are receptor, control center, and effector.

The spleen is the largest organ in what organ system?

Lymphatic

Which body system acts as a fast-acting control system for the body?

Nervous

Which body system functions to produce blood cells?

Skeletal

The branch of anatomy that traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span is referred to as what?

Developmental anatomy

The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is a physiological ability known as _____.

responsiveness

If the human body temperature drops slightly below 37° C (98.6° F), metabolic reactions become _____.

slower

T/F: When placing the body in the anatomical position, thumbs are pointing medially.

False. They are pointing laterally.

T/F: The spinal cord lies in the dorsal cavity.

True

The body cavity which houses the lungs is known as the _____ cavity.

pleural

T/F: Serous fluid increases the friction produced by the movement of the organs with which it is associated.

False

T/F: Homeostasis is a function carried out solely by the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

False

T/F: Negative feedback mechanisms are characterized by having the output of a system cause a change in the system, and, as a result, less of the output is eventually produced.

True

T/F: Homeostasis is a function carried out solely by the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

False

T/F: In order to maintain overall homeostatic balance, at least several different variables must be monitored and regulated.

True

T/F: Embryology is a subdivision of anatomy that deals with developmental changes that occur before birth.

True

Blood flows in one direction through the heart because the heart has valves that prevent backflow. This phenomenon exemplifies what concept?

The principle of complementarity of structure and function

What represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive?

Organismal level

The human body as a whole is enclosed and protected by the integumentary system. This is an example of what necessary life function?

Maintaining boundaries

T/F: Metabolism includes breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks, synthesizing complex cellular structures from simpler substances, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP.

True

In this feedback mechanism, the result or response enhances the original stimulus, and the response is accelerated.

Positive feedback

T/F: The knee is distal to the thigh.

True

T/F: It is possible for slight anatomical variations to occur in a human body; for example, a nerve or blood vessel may be somewhat out of place, or a small muscle may be missing.

True; Humans may differ in their external and internal anatomies. In some bodies, for example, a nerve or blood vessel may be somewhat out of place. Nonetheless, well over 90% of all structures present in any human body match the textbook descriptions. We seldom see extreme anatomical variations because they are incompatible with life.

A serosa, or serous membrane, can be found within which one of the following body cavities? The spinal cavity, ventral body cavity, dorsal body cavity, cranial cavity.

The ventral body cavity

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