Change into a different cell type - this is common in embryos.
Abnormal growth pattern - immature cells grow at the expense of mature cells
Increase in volume of organ due to expansion of cells
Increase in volume of organ due to proliferation of cells
3 layers beneath mucosa
small intestine - submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
Missing microvilli of the small intestine causes an inability to digest gluten, creating symptoms of diarrhea.
dynein arms of cilia are missing, leading to respiratory problems and infertility in all males and some females with the disease
secretions are protein-rich and carbohydrate poor
secretions are carbohydrate-rich and protein poor
ground substance + fibers
a component of ground substance - GAG + protein
most important non-sulfonated GAG. Found in ECM of all connected tissues, in vitreous humors, in synovial fluid.
most important sulfonated GAG. found in cartilage, keratin, skin.
lack of vitamin C. problems wound healing, loss of teeth, pale skin, sunken eyes. C is impt cofactor in collagen synthesis
mutation in elastic fibers. long limbs, long fingers, thin face. messed up elastic fibers messes up growth plates
TI collagen develops abnormally. leads to hypermobile joints and hyperflexible skin. slow wound healing. connective fibers did not cross link properly
functions of epithelia
1. protection; 2. transcellular transport; 3. secretion; 4. absorption; 5. selective permeability; 6. detection of sensations
characteristics of epithelia
cover external and internal surfaces in continuous sheet, polarized, possess specific intermediate fibers, attached to each other by junctional complexes that form tight sheet, separated from underlying tissue by basement membrane, avascular
salivary exocrine gland
in ECM, stimulates cell spreading, growth, contraction, migration
clock face nucleus
signet ring appearance