middle America where Mayas, Aztecs, Chibchas, and Incas existed
(centered in ohio river valley) left behind enormous earthworks and burial mounds which suggested social structure and specified division of labor. also had great trade network. 800 B.C.-A.D. 600
(centered in mississippi river valley) had great buildings and artifacts, human sacrifice(death cults), specialized labor force, tradind network, and worshipped sun. declined by diseases transmitted from Europe. A.D. 600- A.D. 1500
Anasazi culture, lacked rigid class structure, war only fought for self-defense, declined by environmental fators.
Period in European history from 12th C AD through the 16th C AD distinguished by its spirit of inquiry and return to secular learning.
European religious movement that challenged the Catholic Church and resulted in the beginnings of Protestant Christianity.
Rise of nation-states
ruled by kings and queens who had the money and power to sponsor new world explorations. spurred interest of merchant class in exlporations.
Self-taught Italian mariner who in the late 15th C A.D. sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of the Indies. treated the natives cruely.
the exchange and diffusion of different social and ecological elements between the Europeans and the natives. Brought benefits to both sides.
Ruthless, greedy leader of the conquistadores, Spanish soldiers who invaded and eventually destroyed the Aztec culture.
became the most powerful empire in the 16th century by conquering and colonizing America. Very brutal, arrogant, and greedy. killed many natives by spreading diseases and severe murdering.
System used by the conquistadores, whereby favored officers became privileged landowners who controlled Indian villages or groups of villages.
spain's permanent settlement in New Mexico, Texas, and California. To pacify rather than fight the numerous natives, they used religion to control them(forced many to convert).
the revolt Indians launched against the Europeans form froceful convertion to Christianity. Casualty of the Indians were horrible; the survivers were enslaved.
Religious movement founded by John Calvin, based on the doctrine of predestination. Everyone had sins but Christ made all redemptions possible and his widom was beyond human unerstanding.
those who wished to purify the catholic churches during queen Elizabeth's time but didn't get approbed; they left England to build their own churches in America.
During queen Elizabeth's time, those who broke altogether with the church of England. among them aroused interest of the new world.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
first to begin to colonize America in the late 15th, helped Elizabeth to take Newfoundland in 1583 and later disappeared in the winter.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sponsor of an ill-fated expedition of colonists, who in 1587 settled Roanoke Island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, also known as the 'Lost Colony.'
the first English child born in the New World. granddaughter of John White.
the lost of everything in Reanoke during when John White went back to England for supplies. still a mystery.
the church of England; gradually intergrated calvinsim with English catholicism.