the primary reproductive organs
ova and Sperm
Testicles / Testes
male gonads they produce sperm and secret male hormones
sac in which the two oval testes are suspended
failure of the testes to descent into the scrotum, can result in sterility if untreated
contains the seminiferous tubles and interstitial cells (testis divided in to 250 of these small units)
tightly coiled tubules form sperm are located in the lobes of the testis. contain two types of cells spermatogenic and supporting
lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce male hormones called androgens
the most important is testosterone
formed by the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules
are sperm-producing cells
also called sustentacular cells or sertoli cells support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells
is the formation of sperm
contains 46 chromosomes, the normal number for human body
divide by a special type of cell division called meiosis
reduces the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23, thus the sperm had 26 chromosomes until it unites with egg which also has 26 chromosomes = fertilized egg has 26 chromosomes
has three parts head, body, and tail. After they are deposited most only live 1 hour - hardier ones up to 3 days
is primarily a nucleus and contains the genetic information
front part of sperm head that contains enzymes to help sperm penetrate the egg.
Sperm body or midpiece
is spiral shaped and contains many mitochondria and supplies the sperm with the energy need to swim
is a flagellum (threadlike tail) its whip-like movements enable the sperm to swim.
include 2 epididymides, 2 vas (ductus) deferens, 2ejaculatory ducts (left and right), and one urethra
sits along the top and posterior side of the testis here is were the sperm mature and become motile and fertile.
Vas (ductus) deferens
is continuous with the epididymis and ascends as part of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal in the groin region into the pelvic cavity
contains the vas (ductus) deferens, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, muscles, and connective tissue
is formed by the vas deferens as it crosses over the urinary bladder and joins the seminal vesicle. Both ejaculatory ducts pass through the prostate gland to join the single urethra.
extends from the base of the urinary blader to the tip of the penis. The male urethra serves two organ systems the reproductive and the urinary system, but can only serve one at a time
Male reproductive accessory glands
the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands
located at the base of the bladder secrete a thick yellowish material rich in fructose(sugar), vitamin C, and Postaglandins (unsaturated fatty acid), which nourish and activate the sperm as they pass through the ducts
encircles the upper urethra just below the bladder and secretes a milky, alkaline substance to increase sperm motility (vagina is acidic environment)
or Cowper's glands are tiny glands that secrete a thick mucus into the urethra for lubrication during sexual intercourse.
is a mix of sperm and the secretions of the accessory glands, it is milky white liquid whit a alkaline pH.
External genitals (genitalia)
of the male consists of the scrotum and the penis, which hang loosely between the legs
has two functions: carries urine through the urethra to the outside of body and acts as the organ of sexual intercourse
contains three columns of erectile tisue and and enlarges tip called the glans penis.
tip of the penis the opening of of the urethra penetrates the glans penis.
Foreskin or prepuce
loose skin covering the penis extends downward and forms a cuff of skin around the glans. Must be pulled back to clean the smegma
a cheesey substance which includes an oily substance secreted by small glands located in the foreskin mixed with the surrounding dead skin cells
condition of tight foreskin that can not be pulled back for cleaning.
surgical removal of foreskin
the parasympathetic nerves fire, the penile arteries dilate and erectile tissue fills with blood, the accumulation of blood in the erectile tissue causes the penis to enlarge and become rigid.
unable to achieve an erection
Orgasm in male
the pleasurable sensations that occur at the height of sexual stimulation it is accompanied by emission and ejaculation
is the movement of sperm and glandular secretions from the testes and genital ducts in to the urethra where they mix to form semen. This is caused by the influence of the SNS on the ducts causing peristaltic type contractions.
is the expulsion of semen from the urethra to the outside.
is when testosterone secretion increases rapidly and transforms the boy into a man
Primary sex characteristics
include the enlargement and development of the testes and various accessory organs such as the penis
Secondary sex characteristics
refers to the special features of the male body: increased growth in hair, deepening of voice, thickening of skin, increased musculoskeletal growth and development
Male reproductive system
controlled by the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland and the testes.
secretes a releasing hormone, which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete two gonadotropins (hormones) FSH & LH
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
promotes spermatogenesis by stimulating the spermatogenic cells to respond to testosterone
Iuteinizing hormone (LH)
aka Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in male promotes the development of the interstitial cells of the testes and the secretion of testosterone.
Female reproductive system
produces eggs, secretes hormones, nurtures and protects a developing baby for 9 months
Female reproductive system
consists of: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus
are the female gonads and are almond-shaped located on either side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity.
are contained within the ovaries and are tiny saclike structures where eggs development begins. Only one egg per month is developed.
immature egg in the ovarian follicle
cells in the ovarian follicles that surround the oocyte. It is here that the egg undergoes meiotic cell division reducing the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23 and the egg matures.
mature ovarian follicle, it looks like a blister on th surface of the ovary.
once a month the ovarian follicle bursts and the ovary ejects a mature egg with a surrounding layer of cells which travels into the peritoneal cavity to be swept up by the fallopian tubes.
finger like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes that sweep up the mature egg into the tube where it travels to the uterus. If fertilized it implants itself in the uterine lining if no fertile it dies and is eliminated in the menstrual blood.
twinge of pain a women feels at the time of ovulation.
follicular cells that remain after ovulation, they develop into a glandular structure noted as yellow body
secretes two hormones large amounts of progesterone and smaller amounts of estrogen
deteriorated corpus luteum because fertilization did not occur noted as white body
coprus luteum fill with fluid
is a blood filled ovarian cyst
estrogen and progesterone are sex hormones secreted at puberty
secrete large amount of progesterone and smaller amounts of estrogen (girl to women)
promotes the maturation of the egg and helps develop the female secondary sex characteristics -- breast, fat under skin, widening of pelvis, menstrual cycle
establishes menstrual cycle, helps maintain pregnancy, prepares the breast for milk production after pregnancy.
includes, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
also called the uterine tubes or oviducts extends from the uterus to the ovaries
the funnel-shaped end of the fallopian tube nearest the ovary
the fingerlike projections of the infundibulum
fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube rather than in the uterus usually results in miscarriage
caused by scarring or blockage of the tubes
Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID)
an infection in the female reproductive tract that spreads through the tubes into the pelvic cavity associated with STD
or womb is shaped like an upside-down pear is located between the urinary bladder and the rectum
hold the uterus in place
is the upper dome-shaped region of the uterus - above the entrance to the fallopian tubes
is the central region of the uterus
is the lower narrow region of the uterus that opens into the vagina
or perimetrium is the outer serosal layer of the uterus
is the middle smooth muscular layer of the uterus
is the inner layer of the uterus
is layer of the endometrium that is thin and vascular lies next to the myometrium
is 2nd layer of the endometrium that responds to the ovarian hormones and thickens in preparation for the fertilized egg it is also the layer that sloughs off during menstuation
is diagnostic procedure used for the detecting of cancer of the cervix
muscular tub that extends from the cervix to the vaginal opening in the perineum.
thin membrane that usually covers the opening of the vagina
external female genitals it includes the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the vestibular glands also called the pudendum
two folds of hair-covered skin that lie external to the two smaller labia minora. They are separated by a cleft containing the urethral and the vaginal openings. It prevents drying of the mucous membranes
round hair-covered region formed by the anteriorly merging of the labia majora
resembles the penis but smaller it contains erectile tissue and is capped by a thin membrane called the glans.
is a cleft between the labia minora and contains the opening of the urethra and the vagina
Vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands)
lie on either side of the vaginal opening an secrete a mucus containing substance that moistens and lubricates the vestibule
refers to the entire pelvic floor the area between the vaginal opening and the anus
female hormonal secretion that occurs in a monthly cycle with a regular patten of increases and decreases in hormonal levelse
consists of two phases: the follicular phase and the luteal phase
begins with the hypothalamic secretion of releasing hormones these stimulate the release of gonadotropins by the anterior pituitary gland ESTROGEN DOMINATES TE FOLLICULAR PHASE. The phase ends when a sharp rise of LH on day 14 causes ovulation.
immediately follows ovulation when the follicular cells of the ruptured follicle on the surface of the ovary form the corpus luteum LH stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and small amounts of estrogen. PROGESTERONE DOMINATES THE LUTEAL PHASE
also called the menstrual cycle consists of the changes that occur in the endometrium over a 28-day period
is characterized by bleeding that begins on the first day and continues for 3 to5 days when the functional layer of the endometral lining and blood leave the uterus through the vaginal as menstrual flow
begins with the end of the menstrual phase with the repair and growth of the inner endometrial lining
is due to the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum of the ovary. Progesterone causes the endometrial lining to thicken awaiting the arrival of a fertilized ovum.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
hormone secreted by some cells at the site of egg implantation in the uterus blood carries the hCG from the uterus to the ovary where it stimulates the corpus lateum . hCG prevents the deterioration of the corpus lateum.
first period of menstrual bleeding
periods gradually become more irregular until they cease completely
is voluntary regulation of reproduction
are forms of birth control that prevents the unin of egg and sperm
prevent the sperm from entering the female
condoms and diaphragms
spermicidal creams, foams, and jellies
birth control pills are a pharmacologic agent that contains estrogen and progesterone
progesterone-containing capsules, or fods surgically implanted under the skin of a woman's under arm.progesterone is slowly but continuously released from the implant
involves removing a small section of each vas deferens and tying the cut ends
involves removing a small section of each fallopian tub and tying the cut ends.
Intrauterine devices (IUD)
is a small solid object place in the uterine cavity that prevents pregnancy because it stimulates the uterus to prevent implantation of the fertilized egg.
they include abstinence, rhythm method, and coitus interruptus
avoidance of sexual intercourse this is the most effective method of birth control
avoiding sexual intercourse at the time of ovulation
withdrawing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation.
contraception that is implemented after intercourse. It involves two drugs Preven and mifepristone.