The Human Body in Health and Illness Chapter 26

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Gonads

the primary reproductive organs

Gametes

ova and Sperm

Testicles / Testes

male gonads they produce sperm and secret male hormones

Testosterone

male hormone

Scrotum

sac in which the two oval testes are suspended

Cryptorchidism

failure of the testes to descent into the scrotum, can result in sterility if untreated

Lobes

contains the seminiferous tubles and interstitial cells (testis divided in to 250 of these small units)

Seminiferous tubules

tightly coiled tubules form sperm are located in the lobes of the testis. contain two types of cells spermatogenic and supporting

Interstitial cells

lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce male hormones called androgens

Androgen

the most important is testosterone

Sperm cells

formed by the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules

Spermatogenic cells

are sperm-producing cells

Supporting Cells

also called sustentacular cells or sertoli cells support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells

Spermatogenesis

is the formation of sperm

Spermatogonia

undifferentiated spermatogenic

Spermatogonium

contains 46 chromosomes, the normal number for human body

Primary spermatocytes

divide by a special type of cell division called meiosis

Meiosis

reduces the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23, thus the sperm had 26 chromosomes until it unites with egg which also has 26 chromosomes = fertilized egg has 26 chromosomes

Mature sperm

has three parts head, body, and tail. After they are deposited most only live 1 hour - hardier ones up to 3 days

Sperm Head

is primarily a nucleus and contains the genetic information

Acrosome

front part of sperm head that contains enzymes to help sperm penetrate the egg.

Sperm body or midpiece

is spiral shaped and contains many mitochondria and supplies the sperm with the energy need to swim

Sperm tail

is a flagellum (threadlike tail) its whip-like movements enable the sperm to swim.

Genital ducts

include 2 epididymides, 2 vas (ductus) deferens, 2ejaculatory ducts (left and right), and one urethra

Epididymis

sits along the top and posterior side of the testis here is were the sperm mature and become motile and fertile.

Vas (ductus) deferens

is continuous with the epididymis and ascends as part of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal in the groin region into the pelvic cavity

Spermatic cord

contains the vas (ductus) deferens, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, muscles, and connective tissue

Ejaculatory duct

is formed by the vas deferens as it crosses over the urinary bladder and joins the seminal vesicle. Both ejaculatory ducts pass through the prostate gland to join the single urethra.

Urethra

extends from the base of the urinary blader to the tip of the penis. The male urethra serves two organ systems the reproductive and the urinary system, but can only serve one at a time

Male reproductive accessory glands

the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands

Seminal vesicles

located at the base of the bladder secrete a thick yellowish material rich in fructose(sugar), vitamin C, and Postaglandins (unsaturated fatty acid), which nourish and activate the sperm as they pass through the ducts

Prostate gland

encircles the upper urethra just below the bladder and secretes a milky, alkaline substance to increase sperm motility (vagina is acidic environment)

Bulbourethral Glands

or Cowper's glands are tiny glands that secrete a thick mucus into the urethra for lubrication during sexual intercourse.

Semen

is a mix of sperm and the secretions of the accessory glands, it is milky white liquid whit a alkaline pH.

External genitals (genitalia)

of the male consists of the scrotum and the penis, which hang loosely between the legs

Penis

has two functions: carries urine through the urethra to the outside of body and acts as the organ of sexual intercourse

Copulation

sexual intercourse

Penis

contains three columns of erectile tisue and and enlarges tip called the glans penis.

Glans penis

tip of the penis the opening of of the urethra penetrates the glans penis.

Foreskin or prepuce

loose skin covering the penis extends downward and forms a cuff of skin around the glans. Must be pulled back to clean the smegma

Smegma

a cheesey substance which includes an oily substance secreted by small glands located in the foreskin mixed with the surrounding dead skin cells

Phimosis

condition of tight foreskin that can not be pulled back for cleaning.

Circumcision

surgical removal of foreskin

Erection

the parasympathetic nerves fire, the penile arteries dilate and erectile tissue fills with blood, the accumulation of blood in the erectile tissue causes the penis to enlarge and become rigid.

Erectile dysfunction

unable to achieve an erection

Orgasm in male

the pleasurable sensations that occur at the height of sexual stimulation it is accompanied by emission and ejaculation

Emission

is the movement of sperm and glandular secretions from the testes and genital ducts in to the urethra where they mix to form semen. This is caused by the influence of the SNS on the ducts causing peristaltic type contractions.

Ejaculation

is the expulsion of semen from the urethra to the outside.

Puberty

is when testosterone secretion increases rapidly and transforms the boy into a man

Primary sex characteristics

include the enlargement and development of the testes and various accessory organs such as the penis

Secondary sex characteristics

refers to the special features of the male body: increased growth in hair, deepening of voice, thickening of skin, increased musculoskeletal growth and development

Male reproductive system

controlled by the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland and the testes.

Hypothalamus

secretes a releasing hormone, which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete two gonadotropins (hormones) FSH & LH

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

promotes spermatogenesis by stimulating the spermatogenic cells to respond to testosterone

Iuteinizing hormone (LH)

aka Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in male promotes the development of the interstitial cells of the testes and the secretion of testosterone.

Female reproductive system

produces eggs, secretes hormones, nurtures and protects a developing baby for 9 months

Female reproductive system

consists of: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus

Ovaries

are the female gonads and are almond-shaped located on either side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity.

Ovarian follicle

are contained within the ovaries and are tiny saclike structures where eggs development begins. Only one egg per month is developed.

Oocyte

immature egg in the ovarian follicle

Follicular cells

cells in the ovarian follicles that surround the oocyte. It is here that the egg undergoes meiotic cell division reducing the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23 and the egg matures.

Graafian follicle

mature ovarian follicle, it looks like a blister on th surface of the ovary.

Ovum

mature egg

Ovulation

once a month the ovarian follicle bursts and the ovary ejects a mature egg with a surrounding layer of cells which travels into the peritoneal cavity to be swept up by the fallopian tubes.

Fimbriae

finger like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes that sweep up the mature egg into the tube where it travels to the uterus. If fertilized it implants itself in the uterine lining if no fertile it dies and is eliminated in the menstrual blood.

Mittelschmerz

twinge of pain a women feels at the time of ovulation.

Corpus luteum

follicular cells that remain after ovulation, they develop into a glandular structure noted as yellow body

Corpus luteum

secretes two hormones large amounts of progesterone and smaller amounts of estrogen

Corpus albicans

deteriorated corpus luteum because fertilization did not occur noted as white body

Ovarian cyst

coprus luteum fill with fluid

Chocolate cyst

is a blood filled ovarian cyst

Ovarian hormones

estrogen and progesterone are sex hormones secreted at puberty

follicular cells

secrete estrogen

corpus luteum

secrete large amount of progesterone and smaller amounts of estrogen (girl to women)

Estrogen

promotes the maturation of the egg and helps develop the female secondary sex characteristics -- breast, fat under skin, widening of pelvis, menstrual cycle

Progesterone

establishes menstrual cycle, helps maintain pregnancy, prepares the breast for milk production after pregnancy.

Genital tract

includes, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina

Fallopian tube

also called the uterine tubes or oviducts extends from the uterus to the ovaries

Infundibulum

the funnel-shaped end of the fallopian tube nearest the ovary

Fimbriae

the fingerlike projections of the infundibulum

Etopic pregnancy

fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube rather than in the uterus usually results in miscarriage

Sterility

caused by scarring or blockage of the tubes

Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID)

an infection in the female reproductive tract that spreads through the tubes into the pelvic cavity associated with STD

Uterus

or womb is shaped like an upside-down pear is located between the urinary bladder and the rectum

Broad Ligament

hold the uterus in place

Fundus

is the upper dome-shaped region of the uterus - above the entrance to the fallopian tubes

Body

is the central region of the uterus

Cervix

is the lower narrow region of the uterus that opens into the vagina

Epimetrium

or perimetrium is the outer serosal layer of the uterus

Myometrium

is the middle smooth muscular layer of the uterus

Endometrium

is the inner layer of the uterus

Basilar layer

is layer of the endometrium that is thin and vascular lies next to the myometrium

Functional layer

is 2nd layer of the endometrium that responds to the ovarian hormones and thickens in preparation for the fertilized egg it is also the layer that sloughs off during menstuation

Pap smear

is diagnostic procedure used for the detecting of cancer of the cervix

Vagina

muscular tub that extends from the cervix to the vaginal opening in the perineum.

Hymen

thin membrane that usually covers the opening of the vagina

Vulva

external female genitals it includes the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the vestibular glands also called the pudendum

Labia majora

two folds of hair-covered skin that lie external to the two smaller labia minora. They are separated by a cleft containing the urethral and the vaginal openings. It prevents drying of the mucous membranes

Mons Pubis

round hair-covered region formed by the anteriorly merging of the labia majora

Clitoris

resembles the penis but smaller it contains erectile tissue and is capped by a thin membrane called the glans.

Vestibule

is a cleft between the labia minora and contains the opening of the urethra and the vagina

Vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands)

lie on either side of the vaginal opening an secrete a mucus containing substance that moistens and lubricates the vestibule

Perineum

refers to the entire pelvic floor the area between the vaginal opening and the anus

Menses

female hormonal secretion that occurs in a monthly cycle with a regular patten of increases and decreases in hormonal levelse

Ovarian cycle

consists of two phases: the follicular phase and the luteal phase

Follicular phase

begins with the hypothalamic secretion of releasing hormones these stimulate the release of gonadotropins by the anterior pituitary gland ESTROGEN DOMINATES TE FOLLICULAR PHASE. The phase ends when a sharp rise of LH on day 14 causes ovulation.

Luteal phase

immediately follows ovulation when the follicular cells of the ruptured follicle on the surface of the ovary form the corpus luteum LH stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and small amounts of estrogen. PROGESTERONE DOMINATES THE LUTEAL PHASE

Uterine cycle

also called the menstrual cycle consists of the changes that occur in the endometrium over a 28-day period

Menstrual Phase

is characterized by bleeding that begins on the first day and continues for 3 to5 days when the functional layer of the endometral lining and blood leave the uterus through the vaginal as menstrual flow

Proliferative phase

begins with the end of the menstrual phase with the repair and growth of the inner endometrial lining

Secretory phase

is due to the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum of the ovary. Progesterone causes the endometrial lining to thicken awaiting the arrival of a fertilized ovum.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

hormone secreted by some cells at the site of egg implantation in the uterus blood carries the hCG from the uterus to the ovary where it stimulates the corpus lateum . hCG prevents the deterioration of the corpus lateum.

Menarche

first period of menstrual bleeding

Menopause

periods gradually become more irregular until they cease completely

Birth control

is voluntary regulation of reproduction

Contraception

are forms of birth control that prevents the unin of egg and sperm

Barriers

prevent the sperm from entering the female

Mechanical barriers

condoms and diaphragms

Chemical barriers

spermicidal creams, foams, and jellies

Hormonal contraceptives

birth control pills are a pharmacologic agent that contains estrogen and progesterone

Implants

progesterone-containing capsules, or fods surgically implanted under the skin of a woman's under arm.progesterone is slowly but continuously released from the implant

Vasectomy

involves removing a small section of each vas deferens and tying the cut ends

Tubal ligation

involves removing a small section of each fallopian tub and tying the cut ends.

Intrauterine devices (IUD)

is a small solid object place in the uterine cavity that prevents pregnancy because it stimulates the uterus to prevent implantation of the fertilized egg.

Behavioral methods

they include abstinence, rhythm method, and coitus interruptus

Abstinence

avoidance of sexual intercourse this is the most effective method of birth control

Rhythm method

avoiding sexual intercourse at the time of ovulation

Coitus interruptus

withdrawing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation.

Emergency contraception

contraception that is implemented after intercourse. It involves two drugs Preven and mifepristone.

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