One of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
(or uniform or homogeneous region) an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interaction that occur within it.
Perceptual (vernacular) region
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
geographic information system
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data
the spread of ideas, objects, or traits from one culture to another
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
the spread of innovation or other element of culture that occurs with migration
the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence.
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
Geographic viewpoint- a response to determinism- that holds that human descision making, not the environment, is the critical factor in cultural development.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
a cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail
A region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
Cultural complexes have traits in common such as ethnicity, language, religion and others
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.