AP Psychology Chapter 12 & 13: Motivation & Emotion

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James-Lange theory

experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli./We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble/experience emotion you must first perceive your body's arousal.

Cannon-Bard theory

emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion; implies that your heart begins pounding as you experience fear;

Schachter's 2 factor theory

experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal./emotion grows from our awareness of our body's arousal, but also believed that emotions are physiologically similar. Thus, in his view, an emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal.

Opponent-process theory

A theory that proposes that an emotional event elicits two competing processes: (1) an a-process (or primary process) directly elicited by the event, and (2) a b-process (or opponent process) that is elicited by the a-process and serves to counteract the a-process.

Cognitive-appraisal theory

unexplained arousal typically felt to be negative; ANS activity during diff. emotions is more distinct than suggested

Facial feedback effect

the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed

Adaptation-level phenomenon

our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

Relative deprivation

the belief that, no matter how much you are getting in terms of recognition, status, money, etc., it is less than you deserve

Motivation

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

Instinct theory

behavior is motivated by instincts (fixed,innate responses that are species-specific)

Drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

Homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry

Incentive theory

belief that our attraction to particular goals of objects motivates much of our behavior

Intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective.

Extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

Arousal theory

theory of motivation in which people are said to have a optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulaiton

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

glucose

the sugar the body needs to make energy

Insulin

a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose

Hunger/appetite hormones

...

Lateral hypothalamus

The two portions of the Hypothalamus that are located on either side of the Hypothalamus; when stimulated, this nerve cluster triggers feelings of hunger.

Ventromedial hypothalamus

part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating all together.

set point

the point at which one's body tries maintain weight

Basal metabolic rate

The metabolic rate of a resting fasting and non stressed endothermic

Anorexia Nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve .

Bulimia Nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie food, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Sexual Response Cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

Sex hormones

hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that targets the gonads, skin, muscles, and bones to stimulate reproductive organs and bring about sex characteristics

Gonadotropic

Hormones that stimulate the overies and testies

Follicle stimulating

Causes Ova to mature and Spermeotegenesis

Luteinizing

Develops Corpus Luteum and Testosterone

Sexual orientation

a peron's predisposition to choose members of the same or opposite sex as romantic and sexual partners

Belonging motive

the human need to be liked and accepted by family, friends, and member of your community is called

Flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resultig from optimal engagement of one's skills.

Achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

hematic Apperception Test

a projective personality test that requires people to make up stories about the characters in ambiguous pcitures

Pain motive

..........

Conflict theory

the view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends

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