Exploring Psychology

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Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

Cognitive psychology

A prototype is a

Best example of a particular category.

With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?

A robin is a bird.

Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of

the availability heuristic.

A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people's estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the

availability heuristic

The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to

underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are inaccurate.

Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates

divergent thinking.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body's arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the

cortex.

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.

after; at the same time as

Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often reduce people's subjective experience of intense anxiety. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining this effect?

Cannon-Bard

Subjective well-being refers to

self-perceived happiness.

The loss of an arm in an automobile accident is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction. Winning a million-dollar casino jackpot is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction.

have little effect on; have little effect on

Which of the following factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?

having a meaningful religious faith

One way for people to improve their own subjective well-being is to

participate in regular aerobic exercise.

Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?

alarm reaction

In the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, two-thirds of Americans responding to a University of Michigan survey reported

sleeping difficulties

Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly

conforming.

Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children's feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her approach to parent-child interaction was most explicitly recommended by

Rogers.

Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of

reciprocal determinism.

Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by

reciprocal determinism.

An integrated understanding of Tara's consistent cheerfulness in terms of her supportive peer relationships, her calm temperament, and her perceived internal locus of control best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach

Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n)

self-serving bias.

Our ignorance of what we don't know helps to sustain

confidence in our own abilities.

The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's

past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider ________ to be of pivotal importance to personality.

The sense of self

Sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 197)

Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 197)

Blind side

v. to attack critically where a person is vulnerable, uninformed, etc.

Bottom up Processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 197)

Top-Down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 197)

Gestalt

an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 242)

Weber Law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 202)

The sense of touch is actually four senses

Pressure, warmth, cold, and pain

Absolute Threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)

Priming Effect

as shown in experiments, reveals that we can process some information from stimuli too weak to recognize, indicating that much of our information processing occurs automatically, unconsciously.

Subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 200)

ESP

the controversial clain that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clarivoyance, and precognition.

Jean Piaget

theorized that the mind developes by forming schemas that help us assimilate our experiences and that must occasionally be altered to accommodate new information.

assimilate

to absorb fully or make one's own; to adopt as one's own; to adapt fully

accommodate

oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. accommodative; CF. accomodating: helpful and obliging

Circadian Rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 275)

Sleep spindle

brain wave activity during stage 2 sleep

Rem Sleep

rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 276)

behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 316)

Humanistic

perspective in psychology that stresses the goodness of people and their possibility of reaching their fullest potential

Evolutionary

A psychological perspective that analyzes how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes.

penial gland

contains melatonin

Alcohol

depressant

Classical Conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 315)

Encoding

the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)

Chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 359)

Flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)

psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 597)

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