LE Massage Therapy Chapter 3

102 terms by lindaelliott 

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Vitreous Body

a transparent jelly-like material behind the eye

Retina

Innermost coast (tunic) of the eyeball, includes the receptors for vision

Cones

Vision receptors sensitive to COLOR

Rods

Vision receptors that function in dim light

Aqueous Humor

watery liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens (humor = fluid)

Iris

colored part of the eye that regulates the size of the pupil

Sclera

Opaque, outermost layer of the eyeball, made of connective tissue

Eustachian tube

Passageway connecting middle ear cavity with the throat

Tympanic Membrane

Eardrum

Pinna

Name for projecting part of ear

Lacrimal Gland

Produces tears

Ossicles

3 small bones in the middle ear

Proprioceptors

receptors that transmit information on the position of body parts

Ceruminous Glands

Wax glands in external auditory canal

Color Blindness

disorder of a person with a lack of cones in the retina

Lacrimation

secretion of tears

Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary

GH - growth hormone
TSH - thyroid stimulation hormone
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
PRL - prolactin
FSH -follicle stimulating hormone
LH - luteinizing hormone

Hormones produced by islets of langerhans

Insulin and glucagon

Hormones released by adrenal cortex during stress that reduces inflammation

Cortisol

Endocrine gland composed of a cortex and medulla

Adrenal

Gland active in immunity

Thymus

Hormones from the posterior pituitary that causes contractions

Oxytocin

Largest endocrine gland, located in neck

Thyroid

Hormone produced by pineal gland

Melatonin

Endocrine gland divided into an anterior and posterior lobe

Pituitary

Hormone that lowers blood sugar

Insulin

Epinephrine

Adrenaline

Glands of the endocrine system

Pineal
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroids
Thymus
Adrenals
Pancreatic islets
Gonads - Ovaries and Testes

Function of the endocrine system

regulates secretion of hormones

Secretes HGH

Anterior Pituitary

Secretes Oxytocin

Posterior Pituitary

Secretes Glucagon

Pancreas - Islets of Langerhans

Red Blood Cells

Erythocytes

White Blood Cells

Leukocytes

Important gas transported by the blood from lungs to all parts of the body

Oxygen

Gaseous waste product carried by blood to lungs from t he body

Carbon Dioxide

Platelet

thrombocytes

Substances in RBC's that contain iron

HEMOGLOBIN

Transfusion

administration of blood or blood components from one person to another

Rh Factor

Blood antigen involved in hemolytic disease of the newborn

Hemorrage

profuse abnormal bleeding

HEMOGLOBIN

pigment in RBC's that carries oxygen

Right side of heart and lungs

Involved in pulmonary circulation

Left side of the heart and lungs

Involved in systemic circulations

Mitral Valve - Bicuspid

THE LEFT AV VALVE

BRADYCARDIA

Heart rate of less than 60bpm

Stroke Volume

Amount of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat

Pulmonary Valve - Semilunar

Valve that prevents blood on its way to the lungs from returning to the right ventricle

Murmur

Sound that may result from a heart defect, from abnormal closing of the valve

Hearts Conduction System

Bundle of HIS, Purkinje fibers, AV node

Tachycardia

Heart rate greater than 100 bpm

SA node

Pacemaker

Time for average cardiac cycle

0.8 seconds

Diastole

Resting period that follows the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle

Systole

Term for blood pressure reading taken during ventricular contraction

Myocardium

heart muscle thickest layer in the heart wall

Right atrium and ventricle

the oxygen content of each chamber of the heart

Main function of cardiovascular system

circulation

Artery

vessels that carry blood away from the heart, a large, muscular blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart

Veins

blood vessels that carry waste containing blood from the tissues back to the heart

Renal Artery

Large paired branches of the abdominal aorta supplying blood to kidneys

Superior Mesenteric Artery

Largest branch of abdominal aorta, supplies most of the small intestines and first half of large intestines

Coronary Sinus

Vein that carries blood from the coronary circulation back in to the right atrium

Hepatic Artery

Vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the liver

Valves

Structure that prevents blood from moving backward in the veins

Aorta

largest artery in the body

Carotid

Vessels that supply the head and neck on each side

Endothelium

Tissue that comprises the innermost layer of blood vessel

Brachial

Main vessel supplying the arm, a continuation of the axillary artery

Axillary

Main vessel supplying blood to the armpits

Internal Iliac artery

vessels that supply blood to bladder, rectum, genitalia, uterus and vagina

Popliteal

Vessel supplying blood to the knee

AZYGOS

empties into the superior vena cava - VESSEL draining lateral and posterior walls of the abdomen, chest, esphagus, and bronchial tree

Arteries

Vessels that carry blood from the heart to tissues

Smooth Muscle

middle layer of atrial wall that is composed of elastic connective tissue

Veins

Vessels carrying blood of tissues and back to heart

Femoral

Artery of the thigh

Inferior Vena Cava

large vein draining blood from parts of the body below the diaphram

Subdivisions of the aorta

Ascending Aorta
Aortic Arch
Thoracic Aorta
Abdominal Aorta

Paired Arteries

PHRENIC artery
SUPRARENAL artery
RENAL artery
OVARIAN/TESTICULAR arteries
LUMBAR arteries

Unpaired Arteries

CELIAC TRUNK artery
SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY
INFERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY

Thymosin

a hormone produced by the thymus gland

Thymus

an organ that shrinks in size after puberty

Antibodies

provide specific defenses against infections

Tonsils

Lymphatic organ found in throat

Lymph node

organs found through the body that contain WBC to destroy viruses and bacteria

Functions of the Lymph system

Fluid Balance
Protection from infection
Absorption of fats

Right Lymphatic Duct

duct draining lymph from right arm, right side of the head, right half of thoracic cavity into right subclavian

Lacteals

specialized lymphatic capillaries in the small intestines

Hormones aiding in maturation of the T Cells needed for immunity

Thymosin

Peyer Patches

name for internal tonsils, found in small intestine to combat ingested pathogens

Lymph

Tissue Fluid

Vermiform

appendix an organ human can live without

Spleen

largest lymphatic organ in the spleen

Cisterna chyli

temporary storage area formed by an enlargement of the first part of the thoracic duct

Antigen

any foreign substance introduced into the body that provokes an immune response

What causes lymph movement?

Valves in vessels
Contraction of muscles
Skeletal muscle contractions
Breathing

Components of the lymphatic system

Lymph vessel
Lymph
Lymphoid organ
Lymphoid Tissue

Location of lymph glands from most inferior to superior

Groin
Illiac
Lumbar Nodes
Cisterna Chyli
Spleen
Thymus
Parotid

Lymph fliud is derived

Plasma

Immune System

is closely associated the Lymphatic system

What system is the Pancreas and Thymus?

Endocrine

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