One of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
Processes repeating over a space.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
A powerful geographic tool that assists in waging war, making political propaganda, solving medical dilemmas, locating shopping centers, relieving refugees, warning the public of incoming disasters, and much more.
The exact position of a place on the Earth's surface.
The position of a place relative to other human and physical features on the landscape.
Geographic Information Systems (GISs)
Computer-generated tool that assembles, stores, manipulates, and displays spatial data.
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
The product of interactions and movement of various kinds within an area.
A region that exists only as a conceptualization or idea.
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Less dominant culture adopts elements of the dominant culture.
Ex: Spanglish (Latino migrants adopt English)
Weaker culture becomes one with the dominant.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another.
The knowledge, attitudes, & behaviors shared & transmitted by members of a society.
Two cultures display the same trait but use it differently.
(e.g. cattle across cultures)
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
Includes traits, territory, and shared history.
(e.g. Puerto Ricans & Mexicans)
Area within which a particular culture system prevails.
(e.g. Native Americans)
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
Human behavior is strongly controlled by the environment.
An idea or innovation develops in a core area & remains strong there while spreading outward.
(e.g. Islam started in Arabia, diffused, but remains in Arabia)
Diffusion where some people learn what is being diffused; becomes a "leapfrog" effect.
The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other.
Spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source.
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.
Humans are the decision makers and modifiers, not environmental forces.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
(e.g. Kansas farmers in Indian territory)
Ideas may not be adopted but may result in local experimentation.
(e.g. McDonald's veggie burgers in India)
When an independent invention that was not intended for sales revenue is commercially sold globally. (e.g. music)
Two cultures equally function as sources and adopters. Avoids conflict.
Cultures that have maintained their traditions, often isolated, slow to change.
Non-traditional industrialized cultures, constantly changing.