Complete Speech Vocabulary

125 terms by emilietallent 

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All the speech terms we have ever learned in this class...

communication

the deliberate or accidental transfer of a meaning

intrapersonal communication

communication with the self

interpersonal communication

the relationship level of communication

small group communication

interaction with a limited number of persons

mass communication

the transmission of messages which may be processed by gatekeepers prior to being sent to large audiences via a channel of broad diffusion

online or machine assisted communication

the building of relationships using computers and the internet

senders

persons who formulate, encode, and transmit a message

recievers

persons who recieve, decode, and interpret a message

message

the content of a communicative act

channels

media through which messages are sent

noise (interference)

anything that interferes with or distorts the ability to send a message. Keeps you from communicating as well as you should

context

the setting

feedback

information returned to a message source

positive

a behavior enhancing response

negative

a response that extinguishes behavior in progress

internal

a response you give yourself

external

a response from another

effect

the communication outcome (can be emotional or physical)

assimilation

the means by which co-culture members attempt to fit in with the dominant culture

accomodation

the means by which co-culture members maintain their cultural edentity while striving to establish relationships with the dominant culture

co-cultures

groups of persons who differ in some way from the parent culture

collectivist cultures

cultures in which group focus are stressed

cultural imperialism

the expansion of dominion of one culture over another culture

cultural pluralism

adherence to the principle of cultureal relativism

cultural relativism

acceptance of other cultural groups as equal in value to one's own

culturally confused

lacking an understanding of cultural difference

culture

a system of knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that are acquired, shared, and used by members

digital divide

information gap

diversity

recognition and valuing of difference

ethnocentrism

tendency to see one's own culture as superior to all others

feminine cultures

cultures that value tenderness and relationship

high power distance cultures

cultures based on power differences in which subordinates defer to superiors

high context communications

a tradition bound communication system which depends on indirectness

individualistic cultures

cultures in which individual goals are expressed

intercultural communication

interactions with individuals from different cultures

international communications

communications between persons representing different nations

interacial communications

interpreting and sharing of meaning with individuals from different races

interethnic communications

interaction with individuals of different ethnic origins

intracultural commuication

interaction with members of the same racial/ethnic group or co-culture as yours

low power distance cultures

cultures that believe that power should be used only when legitamate

low context communication

system that encourages directness in communication

masculine cultures

cultures that value agressiveness, strength, and material symbols of success

melting pot philosophy

veiw that different cultures should be assimilated into the dominant culture

multiculturalists

persons respectful of and engaged with people from distinctively different cultures

prejudice

a positive or negative prejudgment

stereotypes

mental images, shortcuts that guide reactions

virtual neighborhoods and communities

online surrogate communities

separation

the means co-culture members resist interacting with members of the dominant culture

nonverbal cue

any human behavior that communicates a nonverbal message if assigned meaning by a sender, reciever, or social group

nonverbal communication

all behaviors, attributes, and objects of humans--other than words--that communicate messages and have shared social meanings

emblem

nonverbal cue that has meaning for a certain cultureal group, substitutes for a word and translates almost directly into a word phrase

illustrator

nonverbal cue that complements and accents a verbal message

mixed message

nonverbal cue that contradicts a verbal message

regulator

nonverbal cue that helps regulate and coordinate communication among people

socioemotional regulator

a nonverbal ce that lets others know a person's feelings and communciates roles in a relationship or particular situation

kinesics

body communication that focuses on how people communicate through movement and postures, gestures, and the face and the eyes.

gestures

large and small movements of the hands and arms that communicate meaning within a society or culture

affect display

facial expressions

affect blend

blending of two or more affect displays into one facial expression

micromomentary facial flash

expression that flashes across the face so quickly it is imperceptible

oculesics

using eye contact to communicate

haptics

touch; tactile contact among people

paralanguage

all the nonverbal elements involved in using the voice

vocalics

the nonverbal elements of the voice which includes rate, pitch, and intensity

rate

speed at which a speaker delivers a speech

pitch

highness ore lowness of a speaking voice

intensity

the volume of a speakers voice

nonfluency

frequent use of distractors and interrupters that slip out when you speak

chronemics

intentional and unintentional use of time to communicate

spatial arrangement

the ways spaces are laid out and relate to one another

artifact

objects in an environment that make nonverbal statements about the identity and personality of the owner

feng shui

Chinese approach to spatial arrangement suggesting that artifacts have unique powers when arranged in a certain way

proxemics

study of how people move around in and use space to communicate

personal space

how people distance themselves from one another

territoriality

how people stake out space for themselves

intimate space

space that starts at the skin and goes 18 inches around the person

social space

space that extends from 4 feet to about 12 feet around the speaker

public space

space that extends outward from 12 feet and beyond the speaker

appreciative listening

listening for enjoyment or relaxation

comprehension listening

listening to gain knowledge

critical listening

listening to evaluate the worth of a message

critical thinking

the careful and deliberate process of message evaluation

dialogue listening

listening that focuses on what happens to people as they respond to each other

empathic listening

listening to help others

evaluative feedback

a positive or negative judgement

formative feedback

timed negative feedback

hearing

the involutary physiological process by which we process sound

HURIER model

a model of listening focusing on six skill areas or stages

"I" messages

nonevaluative responses that convey our feelings about the nature of the situation

listening

the deliberate psychological process by which we recieve, understand, and retain aural stimuli

nonevaluative feedback

nondirective feedback

paraphrasing

restating in your own words what another person has said

probing

a nonevaluative technique in which we ask for additional information

red-flag words

words that trigger emotional deafness, dropping listening efficiency to zero

serial communication

a chain of command transmission

speech-thought differential

the difference between speaking and thinking rates

supportive feedback

a non evaluative response indicating that the reciever percieves a problem as important

understanding

a nonevaluative response that uses restatement to check comprehension

"you" messages

responses that place blame on another person

argumentum ad hominem

the use of name-calling in an argument

argumentum ad populum

a bandwagon appeal; an appeal to popular opinion

argumentum ad verecudiam

an appeal to authority

attitudes

predispositions to respond favorably or unfavorably toward a person or subject

balance

a state of psychological comfort in which one's actions, feelings, beliefs are related to each other as one would like them to be

beliefs

confidence in the truth of something

casual reasoning

speculation about the reasons ofr and effects of occurences

consistency

the desire to maintain balance in our lives by behaving according to commitments already formed

credibility

the reciever's assessment of the competence, trustworthiness, and dynaism of a speaker

deduction

reasoning that moves from the general to the specific

derived credibility

a measure of a speaker's credibility during a speech-making event

false division

the polorization of options, when, in fact, many options exist

induction

reasoning that moves from specific evidence to a general conclusion

initial credibility

a measure of how an audience perceives a speaker prior to the speech making event

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

a model that depicts motivation as a pyramid with the most basic needs at the base and the most sophisticated at the apex -- (physiological, security, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization)

Munroe's motivated sequence

a speech framework composed of five phases -- attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action

persuasive speech

a speech whose primary purpose is to change or reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or behaviors of recievers

post hoc, ergo propter hoc

the identification of a false cause

proposition

a statement that summarizes the purpose of a persuasive speech

proposition of fact

a persuasive speech with the goal of setting what is or is not so

proposition of policy

a persuasive speech on what ought to be

proposition of value

a persuasive speech that epouses the worth of an idea, a person, or an object

reasoning from analogy

reasoning by comparison

red herring

a distraction used to lead the reciever to focus on an irrelevant issue

social proof

the determination of what is right by finding out what other people think is right

terminal credibility

a measure of a speaker's credibility at the end of the speech-making event.

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