Online Quiz Chapter 2

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Pharmacology

Potency

The dose needed to produce the desired therapeutic effect is the

Efficacy

__________ is maximal intensity of effect or response that a drug produces

Intravenously

What is the fastest and most predictable method of administering a drug?

Intravenous, intramuscular, and sublingual

All of the following are parenteral routes of drug administration except:

The first statement is false, and the second statement is true; the statements are related

Chemicals that are responsible for carrying a wide variety of messages across the nerve synapse to the receptor very quickly are termed hormones. Examples of this type of immediate chemical messengers include norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and dopamine.

Agonist

A drug that has an affinity for a receptor combines with the receptor and produces an effect is termed a(an):

Potency

All of the following are components of pharmacokinetics except one. Which one is the exception?

Liver

The primary organ involved in metabolism or biotransformation is:

Antagonist

Which drug has an affinity to a receptor, binds to a receptor site, combines with the receptor, and has no effect or reduces the effect of the first drug or neurotransmitter?

Topical

All of the following are enteral routes of administration except one. Which one is the exception?
Topical
Oral
Nasogastric tube
Rectal

Ampicillin 500 mg given two times a day

Which drug would have the longest half-life?
Amoxicillin 500 mg given three times a day
Ampicillin 500 mg given two times a day
Penicillin 500 mg given four times a day

Kidney

The primary organ involved in excretion or elimination is:

The saturation of liver enzymes as a result of the constant rate of drug metabolism over time regardless of dose

Which of the following terms best describes the term zero-order kinetics?

2, 3, 6

Which of the following would make a medication more readily able to be absorbed and distributed?
1. Ionic form
2. Nonionic form
3. Lipid soluble
4. Lipid insoluble
5. Bound to plasma
6. Unbound to plasma

Oral

Drugs that undergo the first-pass effect are given by which route of administration?

a, b, and d only

Which term can be used to measure drug response or action?
Dose-response curve
Potency
Distribution
Efficacy
All of the above
a, b, and d only

The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

Potency is the maximal intensity of effect or response that can be produced by a drug. Administering more of the drug will not increase the efficacy of the drug but can often increase the probability of an adverse reaction.

Prostaglandins and histamines

Local reactions are caused by chemicals that are secreted into organs or areas near their release and are not released into systemic circulation. Examples of these chemicals include:

Hormonal reactions are faster than that of neurotransmitters.

All of the following are true of hormones except one. Which one is the exception?

The drug with the stronger affinity for the receptor will bind to more receptors than the drug with the weaker affinity.

Which of the following statements is most correct concerning the drug's affinity with a receptor site?

A different receptor site than the agonist, reducing the maximal response of the agonist

A noncompetitive antagonist binds to:

All of the above

Once a neurotransmitter is released, which of the following situations can occur?
Enzymes break down the neurotransmitter, terminating its effect.
The neurotransmitter interacts with receptor and interacts to produce an effect.
The neurotransmitter can be taken up by the presynaptic nerve ending (reuptake).
All of the above

Both statements are false.

Cell membranes are composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The membrane lipids make the membrane relatively permeable to ions and polar molecules.

a, b, and c only

Which of the following properties affect a drug's ability to pass across the biologic membrane of the cell?
Lipid solubility
Degree of ionization
Molecular size and shape
Carbohydrate solubility
All of the above
a, b, and c only

Passive transfer by simple diffusion

Lipid-soluble substances move across the lipoprotein cell membrane by what type of mechanism?

The first statement is true; the second statement is false.

Absorption is the process by which drug molecules are transferred from the site of metabolism to the circulating blood. This process requires the drug to pass through biologic membranes.

The pH of the tissues at the site of administration and the dissociation characteristics (pKa) of the drug will determine the amount of drug present in the ionized and nonionized state.

Which of the following statements is most correct concerning the amount of drug absorption in relationship to the drug's pH and degree of ionization?

Decrease, increasing

The presence of infection in the tissue causes a(an) __________ in the pH of the tissue, __________ the effect of local anesthetics.

Distribution

The passage of drugs into various body fluid compartments such as plasma, interstitial fluids, and intracellular fluids is called:

The concentration of free or unbound drug in the plasma

In the distribution of a drug, the biologic activity of the drug is related to the:

The drug effect is increased.

When a drug that is highly bound to the plasma is displaced by another administered drug that is also highly bound, what would happen to the drug effect of the first drug administered?

Four to five half-lives

How many half-lives is required for a drug to be essentially removed from systemic circulation?

Both statements are false.

The placenta acts as a selective barrier against the passage of most drugs. Most drugs cannot pass easily across the placental barrier.

A highly lipid-soluble, nonionized drug will easily penetrates the blood- brain barrier.

All of the following statements are true about drug distribution to the brain except one. Which one is the exception?

Fall

If enterohepatic circulation is blocked, what will happen to the serum level of the circulating drug in the serum?

All of the above

Which of the following statements are true concerning metabolism or biotransformation?
It is the process of changing a drug so that it can be more easily excreted by the kidneys.
Most drugs undergo metabolic transformation in the liver.
Drug metabolism is an enzyme-dependent process.
All of the above

Inactive to inactive

Drugs can be metabolized in all of the following ways except one. Which one is the exception?

Prolonged

When an active drug is metabolized into a second active metabolite, how is the action of that drug affected?

Blood plasma

Where is the primary site of metabolism by hydrolysis?

B and d

Stimulation or induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes by a drug will have what effect on other drugs that the patient is taking?
Metabolized more slowly
Metabolized more quickly
Increased response
Decreased response
b and d

Tolerance

Some medications can stimulate their own metabolism which explains the phenomena of __________?

Increase the plasma levels and actions of the other drugs

Erythromycin and cimetidine are examples of drugs that inhibit the metabolism of other drugs by inhibiting the microsomal enzymes in the liver. The effect of this inhibition on other drugs is to:

a, b, and c only

Which of the following are methods of excretion or elimination by the kidney?
Glomerular filtration
Active tubular secretion
Passive tubular diffusion
Passive glomerular secretion
All of the above
a, b, and c only

Sebum

All of the following are routes of excretion except one. Which one is the exception?
Lungs
Kidneys
Biliary
Breast milk
sweat
Sebum
Saliva, gingival crevicular fluid

Larger

Drugs with a high first-pass effect must have a __________ oral-to-parenteral dose ratio if they are given orally.

Rectal

An enteral route of drug administration that is good in the presence of nausea and vomiting or, if the patient is unconscious, is the __________ route.

a, b, c, and d only

The inhalation route may be used in the administration of the which of the following forms of gaseous, microcrystalline, liquid, or powdered form of drugs for either local or systemic effects.
Gaseous
Liquid
Microcrystalline
Powder
Crystal
All of the above
a, b, c, and d only

The first statement is true; the second statement is false.

Topical drug administrations applications for systemic effect include transdermal patches and sublingual spray or tablet administration. Drugs that often produce allergic reactions should be administered topically because sensitization rarely occurs when applied topically.

a, b, and d only

Advantages of applying drugs by sublingual and buccal routes offer which of the following advantages?
A convenient absorbing surface
Rapid onset of drug effects
Difficult to administer
Avoids first pass effect for drugs degraded by stomach acids and enzymes
All of the above
a, b, and d only

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