AP Bio Chapter 51 Vocab

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Behavior

Action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus.

Ethology

Scientific study if how animals behave, particularly in their natural environments.

Proximate Causation

"How" a behavior occurs or is modified; 1. What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? 2. How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?

Ultimate Causation

"Why" a behavior occurs in the context of natural selection. 1. How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? 2. What is the behavior's evolutionary history?

Behavioral Ecology

Study if the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior.

Fixed Action Pattern

Sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion. Ex: Male stickleback fish attacking other males with red bellies that invade their territory.

Sign Stimulus

An external cue or trigger. Ex: The color red to male stickleback fish.

Kinesis

Change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus. Ex: Sow bugs are more active in dry conditions so it is likely that they will end up in a moist area where motility is lessened.

Taxis

Oriented movement toward(positive) or away from(negative) some stimulus. Ex: Fish swimming upstream to avoid getting swept away and to catch prey more easily.

Migration

A regular, long-distance change in location.

Signal

A stimulus transmitted from one animal to another.

Communication

The transmission and reception of signals.

Pheromones

Emitted chemical substances that give off in order; usually relate to mating but not always.

Innate Behavior

Behavior that is internally fixed and all individuals of a population exhibit it.

Learning

The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.

Habituation

Type of learning where there is a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information; "cry-wolf" effect.

Imprinting

Combination of learned and innate components where the formation of long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object is developed.

Sensitive Period

Limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned; also known as the critical period.

Spatial Learning

Establishment of a memory that reflects the structure of an environment.

Landmarks

Location indicators; used to aid spatial learning.

Cognitive Map

A representation in the nervous system of the spatial relationships between objects in the animal's surroundings. Ex: Clark's nutcracker hiding pine seeds and knowing distances between landmarks.

Associative Learning

The ability to relate one environmental feature with another. Ex:Birds eating a bad-tasting bug then avoiding bugs of that color associating the color with the bad taste.

Classical Conditioning

When an arbitrary stimulus becomes associated with a particular outcome. Ex: Pavlov's dog.

Operant Conditioning

When an animal learns to associate one of it own behavior with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior. Ex: A wolf avoiding porcupines as a prey after getting stuck with needles.

Cognition

Process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment. The most complex form of learning.

Problem Solving

The cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles.

Cross-Fostering Study

When the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species.

Twin Study

Where researchers compare the behavior of identical twins raised apart with those raised in thee same household.

Foraging

Food-obtaining behavior.

Optimal Foraging Model

Natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of of foraging and maximizes the benefits.

Promiscuous

Type of mating with no strong pair-bonds.

Monogamous

Mates of on male and one female that remain together for a longer period of time.

Polygamous

An individual of one sex mating with several of the other.

Polygyny

A single male with many female mates.

Polyandry

A single female with many male mates.

Agnostic Behavior

Ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource, such as food or mates.

Game Theory

A model that evaluates alternative strategies in situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all the individuals involved.

Altruism

When animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of other individuals in the population.

Inclusive Fitness

Hamilton's idea that the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives, who share many of those genes, to produce offspring.

Benefit

The benefit to the recipient; symbolized B.

Cost

Cost to the altruist; C

Coefficient of Relatedness

The fraction of genes that on average are shared; r.

Hamilton's Rule

Natural selection favors altruism when: rB > C

Kin Selection

Natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.

Reciprocal Altruism

When an individual aids another expecting the favor to be returned in the future.

Social Learning

Learning through observing; forms the roots of culture.

Culture

System of information transfer through social learning or teaching that influences the behavior of individuals in a population.

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