Action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus.
"How" a behavior occurs or is modified; 1. What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? 2. How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?
"Why" a behavior occurs in the context of natural selection. 1. How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? 2. What is the behavior's evolutionary history?
Fixed Action Pattern
Sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion. Ex: Male stickleback fish attacking other males with red bellies that invade their territory.
Change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus. Ex: Sow bugs are more active in dry conditions so it is likely that they will end up in a moist area where motility is lessened.
Oriented movement toward(positive) or away from(negative) some stimulus. Ex: Fish swimming upstream to avoid getting swept away and to catch prey more easily.
Emitted chemical substances that give off in order; usually relate to mating but not always.
Type of learning where there is a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information; "cry-wolf" effect.
Combination of learned and innate components where the formation of long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object is developed.
Limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned; also known as the critical period.
A representation in the nervous system of the spatial relationships between objects in the animal's surroundings. Ex: Clark's nutcracker hiding pine seeds and knowing distances between landmarks.
The ability to relate one environmental feature with another. Ex:Birds eating a bad-tasting bug then avoiding bugs of that color associating the color with the bad taste.
When an arbitrary stimulus becomes associated with a particular outcome. Ex: Pavlov's dog.
When an animal learns to associate one of it own behavior with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior. Ex: A wolf avoiding porcupines as a prey after getting stuck with needles.
Process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment. The most complex form of learning.
The cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles.
When the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species.
Where researchers compare the behavior of identical twins raised apart with those raised in thee same household.
Optimal Foraging Model
Natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of of foraging and maximizes the benefits.
Ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource, such as food or mates.
A model that evaluates alternative strategies in situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all the individuals involved.
When animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of other individuals in the population.
Hamilton's idea that the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives, who share many of those genes, to produce offspring.
Natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.
When an individual aids another expecting the favor to be returned in the future.