One of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
The position of place of a certian item on the surface of the Earth as expresed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England.
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect relative location.
An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is , and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other place
a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)
image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
a repeated arrangement of human and/or physical characteristics on earths surface.
A type of region marked by a certain degree of similarity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region.
Functional (nodal) region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Perceptual (vernacular) region
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
Geographic Information Systems
A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
the spacial spreading or dissemination of a culture element (such as a technological innovation) or some other phenomenon (e.g., a disease outbreak)
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones.
cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing. in cultural geography and anthropology, the term is often used to designate the change that occurs in the culture of a less technologically advanced people when contact is made with a society that is more technologically advanced.
the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities, or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence.
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence.
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism.
Geographic viewpoint--a response to determinism--that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. Nonetheless, possibilists view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limit the possibilities of human choice.
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
The process of spreading and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin across a wider area.
The forms and artifacts sequentially placed on the natural landscape by the activities of various human occupants. By this progressive imprinting of the human presence, the physical (natural) landscape is modified into the cultural landscape, forming an interacting unity between the two.
early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas, Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail. In north america, the united states and canada form a culture realm, but Mexico belongs to a different culture realm.
A region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
Cultural complexes that have traits in common such as ethnicity, language, religion and others
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced societies.
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.