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For those of us working on Mr. Terry's honors phys! Gotta love that class! :)

Anatomy

The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another.

Gross anatomy-study of large, easily observable structures.
Microscopic anatomy-study of body structures only seen by a microscope.

Physiology

The study of how the body and its parts work or function.

Levels of Organization

1. Protons, neutrons, and electrons gather to form...
2. Atoms form...
3. Molecules form...
4. Organelles form...
5. Vitalism forms...
6. Cellular Level form...
7. Tissue Level form...
8. Organ level form...
9. Organ system Level form...
10. Organism!

"Maintaining Boundaries"

Every cell of the human body is surrounded by an external membrane that contains its contents and allows needed substances in while generally preventing entry of potentially damaging or unnecessary substances. (Integumentary system= skin)

Responsiveness

Or irritability, is the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them.

Metabolism

Refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells (regulated chiefly by hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system).

Digestion

The process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.

Excretion

The process of removing excreta, or wastes, from the body.

Reproduction

The production of offspring, can occur on the cellular or organismal level (regulated by the hormones of the endocrine system).

Growth

An increase in size, usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells.

Survival Needs

Nutrients (food)
Oxygen (20% of the air we breathe)
Water (60-80% of our body weight)
Appropriate temperature (37 C, or 98 F)
Appropriate atmospheric pressure.

Homeostasis

The body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing. (Indicates dynamic state of equilibrium, or a balance in which internal conditions change and vary but always withing narrow limits).

Homeostatic Control

1. Stimulus produces change in variable
2. Receptor: sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment0 responds by sending information (input) to the control center on the AFFERENT pathway.
3. Control Center-determines the level (set point) at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the info it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action. The output is sent along the EFFERENT pathway to the effector. This provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus.

Negative Feedback Mechanisms

Systems in which the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity. (Example: Body Temperature; see page 13).

Positive Feedback Mechanisms

Rare; they tend to increase the original disturbance (stimuli) and push the variable farther from its original value. (Example: Blood clotting or birth; see page 13).

Anatomical Position

Body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.

Superior

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above

Inferior

away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

Ventral

Toward or at the front of the body; in front of

Dorsal

Toward or at the backside of the body; behind

Medial

Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

Proximal

Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.

Distal

Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.

Superficial

Toward or at the body surface.

Deep

Away from the body surface.

Abdominal

anterior body trunk inferior to ribs

Acromial

point of shoulder

Antebrachial

forearm

Antecubital

Anterior surface of elbow

Axillary

armpit

Brachial

arm

buccal

cheek area

carpal

wrist

cervical

neck region

crural

leg

deltoid

curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle

digital

fingers, toes

femoral

thigh

fibular

lateral part of leg

frontal

forehead

inguinal

area where thigh meets body trunk; groin

nasal

nose area

patellar

anterior knee

pelvic

area overlying the pelvis anteriorly

pubic

genital region

sternal

breastbone area

tarsal

ankle region

thoracic

chest

umbilical

navel

calcaneal

heel of foot

cephalic

head

femoral

thigh

gluteal

buttock

lumbar

area of back between ribs and hips

occipital

posterior surface of head

olecranal

posterior surface of elbow

popliteal

posterior knee area

sacral

area between hips

scapular

shoulder blade region

sural

the posterior surface of lower leg; the calf

vertebral

area of spine

plantar

sole of the foot (inferior body surface).

Section

cut

Plane

imaginary line where a section is made through the body wall or organ.

Sagittal Section

A cut along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the body, dividing the body into right and left parts. (If down the median plane of the body and right and left parts are equal in size, it is called a median, or midsagittal section.

Frontal Section

A cut along a lengthwise plane that divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts. (AKA coronal section)

Transverse Section

A cut along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts. (AKA cross section).

Dorsal Body Cavity

Has two subdivisions, which are continuous with each other: Cranial Cavity- space inside the boy skull
Spinal Cavity- extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column. (Spinal cord, continuation of brain, is protected by the vertebrae, which surround the spinal cavity).

Ventral Body Cavity

Contains structures within chest and abdomen (visceral organs). It's subdivided into 3 parts:
Thoracic cavity- separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm. Organs= lungs and heart) protected by ribs.
Abdominal Cavity-contains stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs
pelvic Cavity- contains reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum. (There is no actual physical structure dividing the abdominopelvic cavity (abdominal + Pelvic cavities).

Mediastinum

Central region in the thoracic cavity that separates the lungs into right and left cavities; it houses the heart, trachea, and other visceral organs.

9 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

Right Hypochondriac Epigastric Left hypochondriac

Right Lumbar Umbilical Left lumbar

Right Iliac Hypogastric Left Iliac

Oral Oral and Digestive Cavities

Oral cavity (mouth) contains teeth and tongue. Continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs, which opens to the exterior at the anus.

Nasal Cavity

Located within and posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the respitory system passageways.

Orbital Cavities

(Orbits) in the skull house the eyes and present them in an anterior position.

Middle Ear Cavities

The middle ear cavities carved into the skull lie just medial to the eardrums. These cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears.

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