A form of behavior modification using operant conditioning principles. Every time the patient displays the desired behavior, he is awarded a token (such as a star or a coin) that can be traded for a physical possession or special privilege.
The art of teaching. It encompasses different styles and methods of instructing.
A theory which focuses on how to structure material to best teach students, especially young ones. This approach can be divided into two general approaches: cognitive and behavioral.
A teaching style which seeks to instruct students in how to recognize and rise up against oppression. This area of teaching is influenced by the works of Karl Marx.
Law of Effect
A principle proposed by Edward Thorndike stating behaviors with positive outcomes will be repeated while those with negative outcomes will be avoided.
A type of instruction which involves the teacher systematically leading the students step by step to a particular learning goals. This type of teaching is best for learning math or other complex skills, but not for less structured tasks such as English composition.
Academic Learning Time
The amount of time the student spends focused on his studies when he is successful at learning the material.
The total length of the class.
The amount of class time devoted to teaching.
The amount of Allocated Time each individual student spends focused on the class.
A method of pedagogy where the teacher actively looks for ways to improve the students' knowledge of a subject. Ways of doing this include actively presenting concepts, checking to see if the students understand, and reteaching any trouble areas for the students.
A type of learning where the teacher encourages the students to find their own meaning in learning. The teacher will show relationships between the new subject matter and past learning and will encourage the students to have confidence in their own ability to make these connections.
According to researcher Benjamin Bloom, students with individual tutors generally perform two standard deviations (two "sigmas") above those in average classrooms.
A testing procedure that measures an individual student's score relative to those of a representative group of students. These tests are used to rank students based on their skill levels compared to their peers.
A testing procedure that measures a student's mastery of a particular skill or understanding of a certain concept. The purpose of this kind of test is to measure whether a student has achieved a certain learning objective.
All sources that contribute to a student's learning. This term includes the teacher, the textbook, the principal, and any others who promote education.
Carroll's Model of School Learning
A learning model that proposes that learning is a function of the ratio between the effort needed to the effort spent learning.
learning=f(time spent/time needed)
Allowing each student to reach full mastery of a concept, regardless of how long it takes.
The study of how students learn and develop.
A humanistic, interdisciplinary form of teaching which emphasizes the role of creativity and imagination in learning. According to this theory, children pass through three learning stages: imitative learning, artistic learning, and abstract learning.
ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
A disruptive disorder characterized by the underdevelopment of certain traits such as impulse control, leading to inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. The three types are predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive, and combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive.
A broad category of disorders in which the individual has difficulty learning in a typical way.
A learning disability which impairs a person's language ability. Those with this disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or spelling.
A disorder characterized by an impairment of one's cognitive abilities and problems with adapting to situations. Individuals with this problem often have IQs of under 70.
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
A group of non-progressive motor problems which cause psychical disability. These disorders are caused by injuries to the motor control centers in the brain during birth or early childhood.
A neurological disorder characterized by seizures. This disorder is caused by excessive, abnormal brain activity.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
A theory which proposes that there are eight different kinds of cognitive intelligences, none of which are necessarily correlated. The intelligences are spacial, linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
The study of the theory and technique of creating psychological tests, such as IQ, aptitude, or personality trait tests.
WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)
An individually administered intelligence test designed for children ages 6-16.
WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
An intelligence test for adults used most commonly in clinical settings.
WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence)
An intelligence test for young children ages 2-7.
Pivotal Response Therapy
A form of behavioral modification designed for autistic children. This treatment targets key parts of an individual's development, such as motivation or social responsiveness, in the hope that the treatment will spread to other behavioral areas as well.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Behavioral modification based on behavioral learning theory.
A theory of internal motivation, the forces which drive behavior in the absence of any external stimuli. A key part of this theory is intrinsic motivation.
According to self-determination theory, the drive one has to perform a specific behavior not for a reward (extrinsic motivation) but for the sheer pleasure of the action itself.
A theory which states that individuals create schemata (mental concepts and rules) based on the interaction between their experience and ideas. This theory is based on the ideas of Jean Piaget.
The collection of traits in a person that inspires him to behave honestly, respectfully, and courageously.
Simple Moral Education Programs
A type of character education where an instructor discusses moral questions with students. This type of program has limited success.
Community-Based Education Programs
A community-centered approach to character education that attempts to apply what the students learn in the classroom to everyday life.
Character Education Programs
Programs which teach students about different positive character traits and how to apply them to their lives.
A model of memory that includes three interacting components (sensory register, working memory, and long-term memory) that together process external information. Although there are three parts, only two of them (working and long-term) are used for memory storage.
According to the Two-Store Model, this is the first phase of memory processing. This part of memory temporarily holds all sensory information.
Iconic Storage Register
The sensory register for visual information.
Echoic Storage Register
The sensory register for auditory information.
Consciously focusing on specific stimuli. This process prevents irrelevant information from interfering with one's cognitive processes.
Working or Short-Term Memory
The second level of processing, and the first level of information storage, in the Two-Store Model. At this level, the person is consciously perceiving certain aspects of the external world. In adults, this kind of memory holds up to seven, plus or minus two, bits of information.
Deliberate repetition of information in short-term memory.
Maintenance or Rote Rehearsal
Repeating information in the same way it was received.
A method of rehearsal where one retains information in short-term memory by relating it to previously learned knowledge.
Dividing large amounts of information into smaller pieces that are easier to remember.
The ability to perform a task automatically, with little or no conscious effort.
The process of transferring information from short-term to long-term memory by developing meaningful relationships and patterns in the data that relate to one's previous knowledge.
The act of assigning meaning to information by interpreting it based on what one already knows.
An unlimited cognitive storage system for retaining permanent records of information deemed important. According to the Two-Store Model, this is the third level of processing and the second level of storage.
A division of long-term memory for storing factual knowledge.
A division of long-term memory for storing events in one's life.
A division of long-term memory for storing rules and methods or performing specific tasks, called procedures.
Abstract representations of different parts of reality. These groups usually contain general knowledge of the world and examples of its specific parts.
Concepts, subdivisions of schemata that help one understand and interpret different parts of the world.
Bringing information out of long-term memory.
Dual Coding Hypothesis
The idea that concrete ideas can be remembered better than abstract ones because concrete words are stored as both visual and verbal information.
Relating current information with previous learning.
Memory tools that enhance one's recall by relating information to knowledge with which it has no natural resemblance.
A mnemonic device that creates a shorthand based on the first letter of each word in a set to be memorized.
Acrostic Mnemonic Device
A mnemonic device that creates a sentence based on the first letter of each word in a set to be memorized.
Method of Loci
A mnemonic device that aids the memory of a long list of information by linking each item in the list to a specific well-known location.
A mnemonic device where one will isolate part of a word, create a mental image of the keyword, and use that image to remember the meaning of the word.
The inability to retrieve learned information.
The process of learned information simply fading from memory.
A kind of forgetting where previously learned information interferes with the retrieval of new information.
A kind of forgetting where new information interferes with the retrieval of previously learned information.
The application of knowledge, skills, and experience to achieving a particular goal.
A five-step problem-solving strategy that involves identifying the problem, defining one's goals, exploring possible ways to reach the goals, anticipating the outcomes and acting, and looking back on one's work.
An approach to problem solving where one reasons how to reach the goal based on the current situation.
Familiar responses to a problem one uses without thinking the situation through.
The inability to see a use for an object other than that to which one is accustomed.
Thinking of all the possible solutions to a problem.
A step-by-step procedure to solve a problem.
General short-cut strategies to problem solving one uses which may not always be correct.
A problem-solving technique where one starts with the goal and works backward.
Transfer of Information
The way that previously learned information affects how one learns new concepts. This can be either positive (helping one understand new ideas) or negative (hindering one from taking in the new information).
Specific (or Low-Road) Transfer
Using a previously learned fact or skill in a different situation in virtually the same way.
General (or High-Road) Transfer
Transferring a general method of problem solving from one situation to the next.
Consciously knowing and using methods of problem solving and memory.
A process that occurs when two stimuli are consistently paired, causing the presence of one to evoke the other.
Another name for classical conditioning, based on the importance of stimuli on this approach.
Another name for operant conditioning, due to the importance of responses in determining whether learning has occured.
A behavior related to a particular stimulus, according to operant conditioning.
A behavior not clearly related to a particular stimulus, according to operant conditioning.
Anything which increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.
A reinforcer which is paired with multiple primary reinforcers, such as academic achievement or social standing.
A reinforcer which is naturally desirable, such as food, water, or heat.
A reinforcer which is paired with a primary reinforcer, such as money or good grades.
A form of behavioral modification where an desirable activity is used to strengthen a more unpleasant one.
A form of behavioral modification for getting a subject to start performing a preferable behavior by reinforcing components of the desired behavior and gradually rewarding more discriminatively.
A form of negative punishment where a disruptive student is removed from the classroom and not allowed back until he or she is ready to behave.
A form of behavioral modification where the teacher and student create a contract specifying certain academic goals and the rewards or privileges that will be given once the goals are reached.
A form of negative punishment where something wanted by the student will be taken away if he or she behaves in an undesirable way.
A form of behavioral modification where the teacher will purposely ignore any disruptive behavior by a student to try to eradicate the behavior.
The use of physical punishment.
The relationship between a student and his or her environment. According to this principle, the student and the environment will influence and affect each other.
The results one expects from different behaviors.
Learning which results from observing the results of others' behaviors and judging whether to perform them oneself.
Models (Observational Learning)
Those one observes.
Merely imitating another person's behavior without understanding its meaning.
Behaving like someone in a book or movie.
Integrating parts of the behaviors from several models to form a new behavioral set.
Directly viewing the reinforcement or punishment of different behaviors.
The act of creating one's own standards of behavior based on observations of others. The best performance standards are those which are moderately difficult.
How capable one believes him- or herself to be.
How capable one actually is.
The path one follows to correct his or her behavior based on discrepancies between his or her performance and that of a model.
The natural physical changes that occur due to a person's genetic code.
All of the orderly changes which help a person better adapt to the surrounding environment.
The process of interpreting and making sense of the world according to Piaget's model of cognitive development.
The ability to reason backward from a conclusion to its cause. According to Piaget, preoperational children lack this skill.
The ability to mentally retain an object even after it has changed form, such as ice melting into water. According to Piaget, children in the preoperational stage of development lack this ability.
The ability to think about multiple objects at the same time and discern relationships between them. According to Piaget, children in the concrete operational stage of development develop this skill.
The ability to focus solely on one object. According to Piaget, preoperational children have developed this skill.
The ability to recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same, even when it changes form. According to Piaget, preoperational children have developed this skill.
The ability to arrange objects in order based on some common quality, such as height, color, or size. According to Piaget, concrete operational children have mastered this skill.
The ability to infer a relationship between two objects and to compare and arrange them. According to Piaget, concrete operational children have this skill.
The ability to organize objects based on some common characteristic. According to Piaget, concrete operational children have mastered this skill.
The process of taking in and integrating information from the environment.
Zone of Proximal (or Potential) Development
The difference between the skills a child develops alone and those that can be learned with the help of someone knowledgeable. This concept was developed by Vygotsky.
Static Assessment Approach
A method of assessing how much students know by giving them closed-ended response questions they are to answer by themselves.
Dynamic Assessment Approach
A method of assessing how much students know in which the teacher will assist them in the problem-solving process.
Mediated Learning Experiences (MLE)
A teaching method developed by Feuerstein where the teacher will intervene between the student and the learning task. In this method, the teacher will help the student make inferences about the world based on different experiences. This can be done either by the student imitating the teacher or by both working together, called collaborative learning.
Learning Potential Assessment Device (LPAD)
A teaching procedure that allows the teacher to test the student's reasoning ability and cognitive functions. Instead of focusing on quantifiable answers, this method aims at improving the student's problem-solving skills.
Self-Talk (or Private Speech)
According to Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of development, a type of speech used by young children to guide their problem-solving process when working by themselves.
Structural Cognitive Modifiability
A theory proposed by Reuven Feuerstein which describes the ability of humans to modify their cognitive process to adapt to different situations in their environment.
A level of moral reasoning guided by rewards and punishments, developed by Kohlberg. This level is further divided into two stages: stage 1 (adherence to rules to please authority figures) and stage 2 (follow rules that satisfy one's needs).
A level of moral reasoning guided by strict adherence to rules, developed by Kohlberg. This level is also divided into two stages: stage 3 (conformity to one's group) and stage 4 (following rules because they promote social order).
A level of moral reasoning guided by adherence to overarching moral principles, developed by Kohlberg. This level is also divided into two stages: stage 5 (realization that one is part of a large society where everyone deserves rights) and stage 6 (obeying universal laws and principles).
A person's self-perception, what one thinks of oneself.
A level of identity status where one has created his or her identity based on the opinions of others, not on personal choice.
A level of identity status where one has no idea who he or she is, and has not made any significant effort to find out.
A level of identity status where the adolescent is actively trying out different beliefs, behaviors, and lifestyles to discover his or her identity.
A level of identity status where the adolescent has finally created his or her own personal identity.
A common misconception among adolescents that one is destined for fame and fortune.
A common misconception among adolescents that one is invincible, impervious to harm.
Imaginary Audience Fallacy
A common misconception among adolescents that everyone is constantly watching and scrutinizing the adolescent's behavior.
The set of social and behavioral norms for each gender held by society.
One's self-perception of his or her gender.
The belief that one gender is better than the other.
A category of psychological disorders where the sufferer will experience chronic anxiety and apprehension.
The exchange of thoughts and feelings through both verbal and nonverbal (such as gestures and facial expressions) means.
A system designed to aid communication. These systems are characteristically organized (have grammar rules for word order), productive (words can be combined in an almost infinite number of arrangements), arbitrary (not necessarily a relationship between a word's sound and its meaning), and discrete (the ability to break it apart into small, identifiable parts).
The smallest unit of sound that affects a word's meaning.
The process of putting together different sounds in a meaningful way.
The smallest meaningful units in a language.
The proper arrangement of words in a sentence.
The study of the meaning behind words.
The study of the social aspects of language use.
Spontaneous noises an infant makes which include all of the sounds from every different language.
Spontaneous noises an infant makes which include only the sounds found in his or her native language.
The use of a single word to represent an entire thought. This kind of speech is found in young children.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
The innate ability to use language, as described by Chomsky.
The inner drive to perform a particular behavior.
A theory which states that the primary source of motivation is extrinsic, or external, rewards.
Human Needs Theory
A theory which states that the primary source of motivation is internal needs.
One of the two divisions of human needs according to Maslow. These needs are survival (food, water, warmth), safety (freedom from danger), belonging (acceptance from others), and self-esteem (approval from others).
One of the two divisions of human needs according to Maslow. These needs are intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation (understanding and appreciating the beauty and truth in the world), and self-actualization (becoming all that one can be).
A theory which states that how students view the world determines their motivation and behavior. This theory attempts to explain how people account for their successes and failures. In general, students attribute their successes to their innate abilities, while they blame their failures on the situation or other people involved.
One of the characteristics in Attribution Theory a student will use to figure out why his or her actions had the outcome they did. This characteristic is stable and intrinsic to the student.
One of the characteristics in Attribution Theory a student will use to figure out why his or her actions had the outcome they did. This characteristic is unstable and intrinsic to the student.
Difficulty of the Task
One of the characteristics in Attribution Theory a student will use to figure out why his or her actions had the outcome they did. This characteristic is stable and external to the student.
One of the characteristics in Attribution Theory a student will use to figure out why his or her actions had the outcome they did. This characteristic is unstable and external to the student.
Internal Locus of Control
According to the Attribution Theory, a student who holds this belief considers success or failure to be in his or her control.
External Locus of Control
According to the Attribution Theory, a student who holds this belief considers success or failure to be uncontrollable.
According to the Attribution Theory, this concept refers to how constant or changeable a student believes something to be.
According to the Attribution Theory, this concept refers to how responsive a student believes the cause of success or failure to be.
Social Learning and Expectancy
A theory that proposes there are both external and internal motivational factors. According to this theory, there are two components behind motivation: the personal value of the endeavor and one's perceived ability to accomplish it.
One's perceived abilities and competence. According to the Social Learning and Expectancy theory, this depends on four kinds of social experiences: personal experiences of the student; vicarious experiences (observing the rewards or punishments others receive for certain behaviors); social persuasion (the amount of support or encouragement a student receives); and the kind of emotional feedback given to a student.
A teacher's belief that he or she can successfully encourage and enable students to reach their highest levels of achievement, regardless of how difficult the process is.
The degree to which a student desires and actively strives to excel and succeed.
The drive to perform a certain behavior solely to receive an external reward.
Structure of Intellect (SOI)
A model of intelligence by Guilford which consists of 150 types of intelligence. According to Guilford, all types of intelligence can be organized along three dimensions: operations (such as memory, cognition, or evaluation), products (such as units, relations, or systems), and contents (such as visual, auditory, or symbolic).
A theory of intelligence by Sternberg which views intelligence as consisting of three components: processing components (the ability to process information and solve problems), contextual components (the ability to apply intelligence to everyday problems), and experimental components (the ability to take in new information and change one's current thinking).
Tests designed to evaluate a student's present performance and predict how well he or she will perform in the future.
Tests designed to measure a student's completion or a particular course or subject area.
Grouping students into different classes based on aptitude test scores.
The ability to apply previous learning to new situations and problems. This is thought to be one of the types of intelligence on which creativity is based.
The ability to see useful relationships between different ideas or aspects of a problem. This is thought to be one of the types of intelligence on which creativity is based.
The ability to create new methods of dealing with everyday problems based on one's prior experiences and feedback from others. This is thought to be one of the types of intelligence on which creativity is based.
Students who are in danger of failing to complete a basic education needed for operating successfully in society.
Students with learning difficulties who require special attention to reach their fullest potentials.
One of the characteristics of ADHD. This term describes students who are easily distracted and cannot remain focused or remember information.
One of the characteristics of ADHD. This term describes students who act without thinking, drift quickly from activity to the next, and perform dangerous behaviors without regarding their consequences.
One of the characteristics of ADHD. This term describes students who seem to be unable to sit still, constantly fidgeting or displaying other disruptive behaviors.
A group of disorders characterized by inappropriate behaviors that inhibit students from getting along well with others.
Externalizing Behavior Disorders
Students with these disorders are angry, defiant, and hostile, seemingly unable to follow the teacher's rules.
Internalizing Behavior Disorders
Students with these disorders are depressed, anxious, and withdrawn, lacking confidence.
Disabilities that affect children with average or above average intelligence who nevertheless have difficulty with some aspect of learning, such as reading, writing, or solving problems.
A medical condition present after birth that causes the child to reason or to cope with social situations far below average.
Mental retardation characterized by an IQ between 50 and 69.
Mental retardation characterized by an IQ between 35 and 49.
Severe and Profound Retardation
Mental retardation characterized by an IQ of 34 or lower.
Mental retardation needing emotion care on an as-needed basis.
Mental retardation requiring consistent educational support.
Mental retardation needing daily help and support in school.
Mental retardation requiring constant high-intensity educational support to pass through school.
Speech and Language Communication Disorders
Disorders characterized by difficulty communicating, either by having trouble expressing oneself or by being unable to properly receive information.
Language disorders characterized by difficulty forming sounds or coherent sentences.
Receptive Language Disorders
Language disorders characterized by trouble understanding spoken language.
Difficulty pronouncing the correct sound or substituting with an incorrect sound.
Difficulty forming smooth connections between words.
Difficulty speaking due to an obstruction of air in the nose or throat.
Disorder affecting a child's sight.
Disorder affecting a child's hearing.
Gifted and Talented Children
A group of children who are outstandingly intelligent (i.e. an IQ of 130 or greater) or are exceptionally skilled in a particular subject or area.
Academic programs where students are taught basic information and then allowed to progress at their own pace. This type of program is used for gifted children.
Academic programs where students are given a deeper education in their areas of interest.
General Exploratory Activities
Academic programs designed to enable students to learn independently more about their areas of interest.
Group Training Experiences
Controlled academic programs designed to stimulate students to learn new problem-solving skills.
Individual and Small-Group Activities
Academic programs focused on real-life problems and situations, such as developing professional skills or resisting negative peer pressure.
The ability to translate written symbols into abstract concepts and ideas.
Meaning Emphasis Strategy
A strategy of teaching reading which stresses the overall meaning of a passage.
Language Experience Strategy
A kind of meaning emphasis strategy which relies on the student's experiences and language ability. The student will dictate a story to an adult, who will write it down and then have the child read the dictated story.
Whole Language Approach
A kind of meaning emphasis strategy which integrates reading with other language skills such as speaking, writing, and listening.
Code Emphasis Strategy
An approach to teaching reading which emphasizes the ability to decode words, involving rules for learning phonemes.
An approach to teaching reading which attempts to enhance children's phonetic awareness, or ability to discriminate between different phonemes. This method teaches students the relationships between written words and their different phonemes.
Reading models which focus on analyzing words letter-by-letter to fully understand the meaning of a text.
Reading models which try to relate written words to different experiences of the student.
An approach to teaching reading that encourages children to monitor their own reading comprehension. After reading, students will summarize in their own words what they just read, ask questions about the text to find the main points, clarify anything not understood, and guess at what will happen next in the passage.
Public Law 94-142
A law enacted in 1975 to ensure that every exceptional learner is given instruction appropriate for his or her needs. The child should be placed in the least restrictive environment possible (i.e. spending the most time with ordinary students).
Educating exceptional learners in a regular classroom while offering them any extra assistance they need.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
A legal document describing a child's special needs and what programs and assistance he or she will receive.
Clear and specific learning objectives that ensure both the teacher and the student stay on track.
General statements about the skills and abilities the student should have after completing the course.
The study of classification. In teaching, systems of this type provide a hierarchical scheme of different learning objectives which helps the teacher include all of the skills and concepts needed for mastery of a topic.
Taxonomies dealing with the different cognitive abilities the student should develop.
Taxonomies detailing the types of values and attitudes the student should develop by the end of the course.
Taxonomies describing physical abilities and skills the student should master.
Learning objectives relating to abstract concepts such as understanding or being able to apply knowledge to different situations. Gronlund proposed a instructional theory focusing on this kind of learning objective.
Specific Learning Outcomes
Learning outcomes defined by specific operational steps and skills a student must master. Gronlund believed that general objectives would lead to these kinds of outcomes.
Breaking apart a learning task into specific, concrete objectives a student must achieve to master the task.
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
A taxonomy created by Bloom. According to this model, there are six levels of mastery of a concept. The student must reach the levels in specific order; higher level skills cannot be mastered without the lower levels. The levels are knowledge (simply remembering the information), comprehension (understanding the material), application (applying the information in concrete situations), analysis (being able to break the information down to its essential parts), synthesis (being able to recombine the parts into a coherent whole), and evaluation (being able to judge the value or worth of a product, using the information as criteria).
Performance-Based Test Strategies
Testing strategies which have students create long-term projects to determine how much they have learned.
A kind of performance-based testing strategy that combines multiple projects of the student that were made at various stages in a project.
A kind of performance-based testing strategy where students will work on a project over a long period of time.
A kind of performance-based testing strategy that allows students to apply knowledge learned in one situation to a different one.
A kind of testing the teacher uses to determine what aspects of a subject to focus on, depending on how much the students know and comprehend.
A kind of testing the teacher uses to measure the students' mastery of a particular subject. These tests are used in a student's final grade.
Absolute Grading Standards
An approach to grading where the students are given a numerical score, using either a 10-point or a 7-point grading scale. These scores may be translated into a letter grade or compared to the average score on a test.
Relative Grading Scales (Curving)
An approach to grading where students' individual scores are compared to a predetermined average score.
Descriptive Grading Scales
An approach to grading using descriptive terms such as "outstanding" or "unsatisfactory" to rate the student's performance.
Performance Grading Scales
An approach to grading which uses a portfolio of a student's work to measure that student's development over time and to compare it to that of others in the class.
Mastery Grading Scales
An approach to grading which establishes a standard students must reach to pass and allows them to continue studying until they reach it.
Achievement Test Battery
A kind of achievement test which combines several different subject areas into the same test.
Competency Tests (or End-of-Grade Tests)
Tests used to determine if students have achieved a minimum amount of learning needed to pass a class.
Diagnostic Achievement Tests
Tests used to determine a student's strengths and weaknesses, judging whether or not a student needs special education services.
A raw score converted into a form in which it can be compared to other scores from the same test.
A sample group who is to represent the population being tested.
Methods of quantitatively analyzing and organizing scores. The methods used include mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation.
A bell-shaped curve which can be easily and consistently used to interpret scores.
Stanine (STAndard NINE)
A method of scaling scores using a nine-point scale with a mean of 5 and standard deviation of 2. This method is intended to minimize insignificant differences between scores.
A method of scaling scores using a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
A method of scaling scores using a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.
A method of scaling scores using a percentage of scores less than or equal to the student's score.
Grade-Level Equivalent Scores
A method of scaling scores which evaluates students in terms of the grade level at which they are functioning.
A measure of how well a test correlates with the skill, trait, or behavior the test is supposed to be evaluating.
The degree to which the content of a test represents the broader subject area the test is supposed to measure.
How relevant a test is at face value.
The degree to which a test correlates with a direct measure of what the test is designed to measure, such as how well a reading test correlates with a student's actual reading level.
The degree to which a test accurately predicts a student's future behavior.
The degree to which a test accurately measures the trait or skill it is designed to measure.
The degree to which performance on one test correlates with performance on a second test.
A measure of how consistent scores are on the same test. Any differences are attributed to errors in the test.
A measure of how well scores from the same test correlate when taken by the same people on two different occasions.
Alternate (or Parallel) Forms Reliability
A measure of how well scores from two different tests meant to evaluate the same thing correlate with each other.
Split-Half (or Spearman-Brown) Reliability
A measure of how well scores from one half of a test correlate with those from the other half.
A measure of the internal consistency of a test.
A condition where a test consistently provides an inaccurate score due to some property of the test taker, such as gender, socioeconomic status, or race.
A possible range a student's scores may fall in if the student took the test multiple times.
Standard Error of Estimate
A measure of how imperfect the validity of a test is.
A kind of teaching which stresses that students identify the underlying relationships between different concepts and ideas to enhance their understanding.
A learning strategy which involves grouping information into categories based on shared patterns, sequences, or characteristics.
Discovery Learning (or Guided Learning or Constructivism)
A form of teaching where the teacher will act as a guide as the students actively discover underlying patterns, solve problems, and form general rules from data.
Information given in advance of a lesson to prepare the students by reminding them of important information learned before and focusing them on key information.
A type of learning where a small group of students will work together on the same project, each making some contribution.
Visual images, such as maps, tables, or graphs, which organize information and help consolidate concepts for the students.
Students with this condition have learned that their efforts are all in vain and have given up trying to study by themselves.
The process a teacher uses in discovery learning by guiding the students.
Comparative Advance Organizers
Advance organizers which list previously learned information the students will need for the lesson.
Expository Advance Organizers
Advance organizers which list new, unlearned information the students will need for the lesson.
Student Team Achievement Decisions
A type of cooperative learning where the teacher will teach the students a skill, divide them into teams, and allow each team to practice the skill until all teams understand it perfectly.
A type of cooperative learning where students will be divided into teams and each student will be responsible for some aspect of a project.
Relating new information to that previously learned.
Asking students challenging questions to gauge their understanding and focus their attention.
Cultural Deficit Theories
Theories which argue that the language, culture, and traditions of minority students negatively affects their academic ability.
Cultural Differences Theories
Theories which view the unique language, culture, and customs of minority children as an asset in their learning.
Maintenance Bilingual Programs
Bilingual education programs which teach students both in their native tongue and English, allowing them to maintain their bilingualism.
Transitional Bilingual Programs
Bilingual education programs which instruct minority students in their native tongue until they become more competent in English.
English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs
Bilingual education programs which aim to use English as much as possible.
One's social and economic standing, including one's class, race, and education. SES is highly influential on students' success in school, with those from low-SES families performing below their high-SES classmates.
A prediction which causes itself to become true. In educational psychology, the teacher's expectations about a student's success almost always come true, regardless of whether or not the expectations were backed by truth.
Teachers with this quality are constantly aware of and in control of everything going on in a classroom.
Punishing or rewarding the entire class based on its obedience to the rules.
An approach to classroom management where the teacher will enforce clear rules for student conduct, quickly and impartially punishing any disobedience.
A theory by Melanie Klein which proposes a child's personality develops from the child's relationship with his or her mother. According to this view, children need a strong mother to develop well.
Knowledge and understanding of society's rules, usually gained from experience.
Assumptions about how different social relationships work and how other people feel and think.
The loss of subjects in a research study over time due to participant drop-out.