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Anatomy

Structure

Physiology

Function

Anatomical Position

person is standing, facing the observer, feet flat on the floor, arms hanging down by their side, with palms facing forward.

Proximal

closer to the main body

Distal

farther from the main body

Dorsal

back side

posterior

back side

Ventral

front side

anterior

front side

Superior

above; closer to the head in humans and closer to the backbone in a 4-legged animal.

Inferior

below; farther from the head in humans and closer to the underside or belly of a 4-legged animal.

Medial

closer to the midline of the body

Lateral

farther away from the midline of the body

Superficial

closer to the surface of the body

Deep

farther away (deeper inside) from the surface of the body

Ipsilateral

on the same side of the body

Contralateral

on opposite sides of the body

Cranial

skull

Cephalic

head

Brachial

arm

Antebrachial

forearm

Axillary

armpit

Thoracic

chest

Patellar

kneecap

Gluteal

buttocks

Crural

anterior lower leg

Sural

calf

Tarsal

ankle

Cervical

neck

Pollex

thumb

Hallux

big toe

Metacarpal (palmar)

palm

Plantar

sole of foot

Midsagittal

divides body or organ into EQUAL right and left halves.

Parasagittal

division into UNEQUAL right and left sides.

Frontal (Coronal)

division into a front side and a back side.

Transverse (Horizontal or Cross-section)

division into upper and lower parts.

Oblique

division that passes through the body or an organ at an angle.

Pericardial cavity

houses heart

Pleural cavity

houses lungs

Mediastinum

contains ALL the structures in the thoracic (chest) cavity EXCEPT the lungs.

Abdominal cavity

Organs (viscera) include:
stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, small intestine and most of the large intestine.

Pelvic cavity

Viscera include:
Urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and male and female reproductive structures.

ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS

two imaginary lines that pass vertically and horizontally through the umbilicus.

HOMEOSTASIS

maintains a CONSTANT internal environment within certain physiological parameters.

Homeostatic imbalance

disease.

Carbohydrates

simple sugars such as glucose

Lipids

glycerol + fatty acid chains

Proteins

amino acids

Nucleic Acids

nucleotides

DNA

A, T, G, C

RNA

A, U, G, C

Prophase

chromatin condenses, spindle forms, nuclear membrane disappears.

Metaphase

sister chromatids line up on the equator of the cell.

Anaphase

sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase

cytokinesis (cell divides into two new daughter cells), chromosomes decondense, spindle disappears, nuclear membrane reforms.

Gap 1 (G1)

cell grows in size by making more organelles and cytoplasm.

Gap 2 (G2)

Cell prepares for mitosis

Ion

atom that has a charge.

Cation

positive charge: Na+, Ca++

Anion

negative charge: Cl-

Catabolism

breaking down large molecules into small molecules.

Anabolism

building large molecules from small molecules

OSMOSIS

natural unassisted movement of WATER from an area of HIGH water concentration to an area of LOW water concentration.

Solute

substance that is dissolved in water.

Isotonic

solute concentrations are EQUAL on both sides of the cell membrane.

Hypotonic

LOW solute concentration (and therefore HIGH water concentration) OUTSIDE the cell.

Hypertonic

HIGH solute concentration (and therefore LOW water concentration) OUTSIDE the cell.

Acids

pH 0 to pH <7.0

Bases

pH >7.0 to pH 14.

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