person is standing, facing the observer, feet flat on the floor, arms hanging down by their side, with palms facing forward.
closer to the main body
farther from the main body
above; closer to the head in humans and closer to the backbone in a 4-legged animal.
below; farther from the head in humans and closer to the underside or belly of a 4-legged animal.
closer to the midline of the body
farther away from the midline of the body
closer to the surface of the body
farther away (deeper inside) from the surface of the body
on the same side of the body
on opposite sides of the body
anterior lower leg
sole of foot
divides body or organ into EQUAL right and left halves.
division into UNEQUAL right and left sides.
division into a front side and a back side.
Transverse (Horizontal or Cross-section)
division into upper and lower parts.
division that passes through the body or an organ at an angle.
contains ALL the structures in the thoracic (chest) cavity EXCEPT the lungs.
Organs (viscera) include:
stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, small intestine and most of the large intestine.
Urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and male and female reproductive structures.
two imaginary lines that pass vertically and horizontally through the umbilicus.
maintains a CONSTANT internal environment within certain physiological parameters.
simple sugars such as glucose
glycerol + fatty acid chains
A, T, G, C
A, U, G, C
chromatin condenses, spindle forms, nuclear membrane disappears.
sister chromatids line up on the equator of the cell.
sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell.
cytokinesis (cell divides into two new daughter cells), chromosomes decondense, spindle disappears, nuclear membrane reforms.
Gap 1 (G1)
cell grows in size by making more organelles and cytoplasm.
Gap 2 (G2)
Cell prepares for mitosis
atom that has a charge.
positive charge: Na+, Ca++
negative charge: Cl-
breaking down large molecules into small molecules.
building large molecules from small molecules
natural unassisted movement of WATER from an area of HIGH water concentration to an area of LOW water concentration.
substance that is dissolved in water.
solute concentrations are EQUAL on both sides of the cell membrane.
LOW solute concentration (and therefore HIGH water concentration) OUTSIDE the cell.
HIGH solute concentration (and therefore LOW water concentration) OUTSIDE the cell.
pH 0 to pH <7.0
pH >7.0 to pH 14.