APUSH Chapter 8

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Second Continental Congress

Philadelphia May 10, 1775, all 13 colonies arrived, purpose: new appeals to king

George Washington

Congress chose Washington to head army in Boston, political reasons: from Virginia, man of wealth so not a fortune-seeker, character: leadership, strength of character, moral force

war of inconsistency

April 1775 to July 1776- colonists were split between loyalty to the king and shooting the king's soldiers

Ticonderoga and Crown Point

May 1775- Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons and secured priceless store of gunpowder and artillery

Bunker Hill

June 1775- colonists seized Bunker hill where they threatened British army in Boston. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Olive Branch Petition

last ditch effort at peace that proclaimed American loyalty to the crown, begging king to prevent further hostilities- failed

Hessians

German troops that King George III hired when he proclaimed the colonies to be in rebellion on August 1775, angered colonists

General Richard Montgomery

colonists invaded Canada in 1775 and Montgomery captured Montreal

General Benedict Arnold

Montgomery was joined at Quebec by Arnold, assault on Quebec was beaten off, Montgomery was killed, and Arnold injured, eventually turned traitor- but was caught

Virginia town of Norfolk

British set fire to this town in 1776, then in March were forced to leave Boston

Moore's Creek Bridge in North Carolina

victory for the colonists! :) 1776

Charleston harbor

colonists defeated invading British fleet in June 1776

Thomas Paine

1776 wrote Common Sense, convinced American colonies that their true cause was independence not reconciliation with Britain, also supported the idea of a "republic"

republic

power from the people, individuals in republic must sacrifice personal interest to public good

Richard Henry Lee

June 7, 1776, "declared independence" , notion adopted on July 2, 1776

Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson wrote this on July 4, 1776, talked about the natural rights of humankind (king denied these rights), French Declaration of the Rights of Man were made 13 years later based on this

Loyalists

colonials loyal to the king (Tories)- 16% of population, people of education + wealth, older generation, Anglican clergy, (Loyalists were roughly handled, imprisoned, and a few hung, many estates were confiscated and sold)

Patriots

American rebels (Whigs)

Battle of Long Island

Washington and an army escaped to Manhattan Island then to Delaware River, British general Howe did not crush American forces speedily, battle continued at Trenton (see Trenton)

Trenton

December 26, 1776- Washington captured 1000 Hessians after stealthily crossing back on the Delaware

The Scheme for Capturing the Hudson River Valley

British General John Burgoyne would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada, General Howe's troops in New York could meet Burgoyne near Albany, Colonel Barry St. Legor could come in from the west by Lake Ontario and Mohawk Valley

Lake Champlain in 1776

General Benedict Arnold fought here and lost, but he won time

attack on Philadelphia

British General Howe attacked Philadelphia, Washington sent troops in 1777 to Philadelphia but was defeated at Brandywine Creek and Germantown

Valley Forge

Washington retired to Valley Forge after the loss in Philadelphia

Saratoga

Burgoyne who was struggling through the north of Albany got trapped, forced to surrender in October 17, 1777 to American Horatio Gates- secured French aid and revived colonial cause

Model Treaty

guide American commissioners (no political connection, no military connection, only commercial connection)

Armed Neutrality

1780 Catherine the Great of Russia made this where all the remaining European neutrals maintained an attitude of passive hostility towards Britain

Carolina campaign of 1781

General Nathaniel Green- strategy of delay- succeeded in clearing Georgia and South Carolina from the British

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

1784, Indians (Senecas, Mohawks, Cayuhas, and Onondagas) forced to cede land because they were allies of George III

George Rogers Clark 1778-1779

captured British forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes in the Illinois country

privateers

American privately owned armed ships who were authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping- captured 600 British prizes

Yorktown and Cornwallis

Cornwallis fell back to Yorktown to wait for seaborne supplies, Admiral de Grasse joined Washington to attack Yorktown (Washington by land, de Grasse by sea), Cornwallis surrendered 7000 men on 12/19/1781

Treaty of Paris of 1783

-British recognized independece of US
-granted generous boundaries
-Yankees retain a share in the fisheries of Newfoundland
-Loyalists not further persecuted
- debts owed to the British creditors must be paid

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