Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom to Petition the Government.
right to bear arms; right to form a militia
No forced quartering of soldiers in private homes
Protection from illegal searches & seizures
Criminal proceedings, due process, grand jury, double jeopardy, eminent domain
Criminal procedures, speedy trial, confront witnesses, have an attorney
right sue people
No excessive bail, fine, or cruel/unusual punishment
enumeration of specific rights in Const.; cannot be taken away to deny other rights
Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people
Limits the jurisdiction of federal courts.
provides the procedure by which the President and Vice President are elected; vote by ballot.
everyone citizens (except Native Americans).
black men right to vote.
Prohibition of alcoholic beverages - banned making, selling, or transporting of alcoholic beverages
Voting Rights for Women
Repeal of Prohibition
theory of relativity E-mc2
Alexander Graham Bell
Cyrus H McCormick
hot air balloon
Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
- germ theory of disease
gas powered airplane
assembly line & 1st American car
gas engine motorcycle
cotton gin- demand for labor increased the slave trade.
mother of Texas; 1st bear child in Texas
1st elected woman Governor in Texas
1st African American woman from S. State elected house of Representation
1st black to play baseball major league.
different countries exerted control in Texas
Texas Our Texas (William J. Marsh & Gladys Yoakum Wright)
strongest currency today (European union)- result of economic interdependence
• Chicken Itza- human victims scarified
• Calendar/writing system
• Stone & mortar pyramids
• Concept of zero
Zapotecs, Olmecs, & Toltecs
• Very sophisticated
• Religious observances
• Religious ceremonial sites
• Alphabetic writing system
• Highest degree Mexico
• Centralized govert.- king
• Skilled builders, Engineers, astronomers, mathematicians
• Children of the sun
• Ecuador, Peru, Chile
• Political and road system
• Adaptation- Built capital Cuzco in Andes Mountains. Altitude really above sea level, oxygen scare & agriculture challenge. Live & flourish under conditions. Involved so they could tolerate low levels of oxygen. Developed genetic adaption for high altitude living.
• North America
• Woodland & Mississippi people
• Burial mounds: priests and chiefs
Anasazi & Hohokam
• Southwestern U.S. & Northern Mexico
• Adobe architecture- individual apartments
• Worked land irrigation
• Drought/attacks-decline of them
• Cliff dwellings- protect
• Anasazi settle Rio Grande- leading to Pueblo
• Drought resistant corn & squash
• Survived Spanish conquest
• Ontario. Canada, New York
• Farming- main economic
• Matrilineal line- women most of farming
• Iroquois Confederation- Common defense & discourage war
Egyptians & Babylonians
- 1st mathematicians
- use hieroglyphs represent #'s
- managing resources & large scale structures
- tables for x, ÷, cube roots
- # system w/ base 60
- circle- bisected by diameter
- angles isosceles triangle (=)
- semi- circle- right angle
- relationships between harmony & math: Pythagorean theorem
- calculated distance between planets
- irrational #'s
- computation; influenced algebra
- solve hard algebra: engineering; quadratic equations
- numeric system
concept of zero
American War of Independence
- reason: economic
- England used mercantilism (economic doctrine that says government control of foreign trade) : way exploit colonies. Colonies wanted independence war occurred.
- Another reason: French and Indian War: Emptied British coffers, Crown wanted quick way recover financially. Taxation followed war. It was unbearable. Responded by civil disobedience by boycotting government. Several colonists killed, Boston Massacre. Boston Tea Party- boycott; dumped tea in Boston harbor protest taxation.
- Battle at Bunker Hill- British lost large number of soldiers. French decided because of Seven Years War. Treaty of Paris- treaty ended war & gave independence to nation.
- led formation of U.S.
- Led up to it: After French Indian War decided they more of the costs: military protection. British: imposed harsh taxes.
Declaration of Independence
- pronounced all colonies free & independent states.
- Lists: unalienable rights & liberties; list of grievances conducted by British; announces colonies as United States of America.
- Foundation equal rights for all people.
Articles of Confederation
- new govert. Composed of Repres. From 13 independent states w/ limited power.
- Congress- can't declare war or raise army. Could ask- states for $ or for soldiers.
- Each state printed own $ & imposed taxes on imports from the other states.
- Common citizenship.
- Uniform system of weights and measurement & postal service.
- supreme law of U.S.
-framework for the organization of U.S. government & for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.
- Articles of Confederation needed revision- a constitutional convention held.
- Washington 1st Pres.
- Three branches of govert.: executive, judicial, & legislative.
- System of checks and balance: regulate each branch.
- (Americans for Americans)
- Won't permit establishment of colonies in W. Hemisphere.
- Banned European countries from attacking new American republics were just becoming established.
- U.S. can't be involved w/ European affairs.
- U.S. eventually become world power & expands borders.
- James Polk reality- result war between Mexico and U.S.
- territorial expansion of the United States
- Americans moral destiny stretch across continent motivated many people to migrate West.
- Stephen F. Austin- colonizing Mexican province of Texas with "North American population- led expansionists, united behind the slogan "54° 40' or fight!," demand United States should own the entire Pacific Northwest all the way to the southern border of Alaska.
- God will own North American continent
- Slavery big issue.
- Northern states stand: turned against slavery b/ economic: become more urban & industrialized, received large numbers of immigrants provided necessary labor.
- Southern stand: wanted slavery b/ remained rural & received few immigrants, slavery foundation of economy.
- Abraham Lincoln start of War.
-Battle of Gettysburg
* most disastrous event in history.
* war's turning point
*largest number of casualties in the American Civil War
*did not end the war, it was the great battle of the war
*President Lincoln- Gettysburg Address-eulogy address.
*General Robert Lee (Confederate) surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant (Union) after many lives lost.
prohibits alcohol consumption. Al Capone- millions selling alcohol
Mexican American Civil Rights Movement
- human rights.
- Chicano Movement- wanted human rights. Cultural & political. Goals: restoration land grants, farm rights, & education/political rights. Rescue cultural & linguistic identity.
- Reies Tijerina- land grant movement, recover land taken as result of Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty.
- Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huertas- united farm workers union, better working conditions & fair compensation for agricultural workers.
- Raza Unida Party- nominated candidate for mayor, city councils. Awaken Mexican American voters.
- Mexican American war- fought over boundary disputes
- Better employment & opportunities
- Equal Pay Act & Civil Rights Act- prohibited discrimination based on gender
- National Organization for women- founded by Betty Friedan- equal rights
Social Studies TEKS
- K- child, home, family, historical char., patriotic holidays
- 1- chronological- past/present/future, anthems & mottoes
- 2- impact individuals, concept of time- days/wks./months
- 3- past/present heroes, people overcame obstacles
- 4- TX history
- 5- U.S. history, free enterprise system, Dec. of Indep., Pledge of Allegiance
- 6- World history
-Promote concept formation
-Using develop. Appropriate vocab. Teachers guide them recall or infer data from chart.
-Data retrieval chart- gathers info & keeps track of data gathered through research. Comparison 2 or more set of data.
-Narrative chart- events in sequence. Steps make favorite dishes. Time line. Time line- begins w/ things child did yesterday, today, tomorrow.
-Pedigree chart- origin & develop. of something. Family tree
-Organizational chart- structure of an organization. Order of use is in charge (principle- assistant principle- teacher)
-Flowchart- process involving changes at certain points. Steps complete degree.
- engaging involves ability acquire info. Various resources. Ability design & conduct investigations- need develop understanding key info. In content.
- Inquiry based teaching- teachers ask & then help students answer questions by proposing hypotheses, gathering & evaluating data, & generating conclusions; understanding scientific method.
-came here to avoid religious persecution.
-Wrote Mayflower Compact- rules guide the community. 1st type of government in North America. drawn & signed by Pilgrims aboard Mayflower. Consult one another make decisions & act by will of majority. Earliest agreement political body. Power act good of colony.
- William Bradford's diary about the pilgrims' voyage from England and their landing in Plymouth, Massachusetts in the 17th Century is an narrative
Virginia House of Burgesses
- 1st colonial assembly of elected representatives from Virginia. Represent in lawmaking process.
- first legislature anywhere in the English colonies
- first group of Government Representatives in the U.S.
Indentured servant system
brings workers to New World. Sell himself to agent for cost of passage. End of service remained as salaried workers or given land. Africans- not applied.
-people questioning religious dogmas emphasize scientific reasoning.
-Result: chemistry & biology. Questioning governments & wanting freedom. Led seek independence & fight tyranny. Led to French Revolution & American War of Independence.
- Led to Constitution. Protecting rights people.
World War I
-1st global war: Allies & Central Powers
- Trigger: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir throne of Austria-Hungary
-Allies- England, France, Russia, & Italy
-Central Powers: Germany, Austria Hungary Empire, Turkey, & Bulgaria
-America: neutral until Germany developed submarine as weapon. Sank Luistania killing many Americans. Wilson- declared war. Won b/ of it.
-Treaty of Versailles- war ended. Central Powers- punished & pay for war. Empire dismembered. Treaty created resentment eventually led to WW2
-Result: leading military training center: military bases established- economic growth. Texas: leading state in defense industry.
World War II
-Emergence of totalitarian countries created instability in Europe. Result: war. Stalin & Hitler. Liberties ignored. Revenge treatment suffered result WW1. Japan built empire already conquered parts of China. Promoted creation of military alliances.
-Allies- Russia, France, England
-Axis powers- Germany, Italy, Japan
-Started with German invasion of Poland.
-U.S. - supported Allies w/ supplies & weapons but no troops. Joined when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
- atomic bomb: Japan invincible; Truman- atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki; ended WW 2
- Yalta Conference: Allies met talk terms end war. Leaders met. German divided into 4 sections each controlled allied country. German pay Russians for war reparations.
- D-Day: plan execute the invasion of Europe. Eisenhower- crossed English Channel & launched larges offensive against Germany. Result: France freed from German. German defeated w/ combined force of allies & U.S.
- Hiroshima & Nagasaki- Atomic bomb- defeat Japan b/ seemed invincible. Truman. Officially ended WW2.
- Marshall Plan- plan rebuild economic infrastructure in Europe: U.S. provided $ & machinery.
- The Holocaust & Creation of Israel- Hitler exterminate all Jews. Jews- concentration camps. Act of Genocide. Arab Liberation Army- fight the Jewish state.
Texas War of Independence
-colonists: govt. not providing adequate support & protection to Texas. Sent Stephen Austin to negotiate w/ Santa Anna. Didn't want to, and jailed him for yr.
• First Battle in Gonzales- cannon- protect colonists. Mexican soldiers came reclaim it. Texas refused, & fired at Mexican soldiers. Result: Texas Independence.
• Sam Houston- governor/ delegate: sent secure support from govt. Volunteered fight. Became commander & chief
• The Alamo & Goliad- 1st meaningful battle. Few men protected it. Colonel William Travis- led it. James Bowie & Davy Crockett joined in. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna & Mexican army killed everyone.
-Battle of San Jacinto- As colonists fighting at Alamo General Sam Houston strengthening army. Defeated Mexican army at San Jacinto River within minutes. Signed Treaty of Velasco. Result: Mexican army withdrew, Sam Houston Pres. Of new republic, Texas independent nation. Mexican govt. refused listen.
-Texas- Texas joined U.S. b/ of financial & them not being able secure borders. Became twenty-eight state. Sent troops secure border. Clashed w/ Mexican govt. War occurred between Mexico & U.S.
• Mexican & U.S. War- U.S. won: got a lot of land. Result of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico withdrew. Got the state California from Mexico.
-Reconstruction- afterwards TX economy flourished b/ cattle. Barbed wire, cattle breeding
-Oil- discovered Spindletop Oil Field- Beaumont. Leading producer of oil. Result: large urban & industrial centers
Social Studies includes
geography, history, civs, government, psychology, & economics
-scale model of Earth shaped like sphere; more accurate than Mercator b/ actual shape of Earth: actual size & shape
-K-3- 12 in. 3 colors
-4-6- 16 in. 7 colors
-Northern Hemisphere- most world's land located
-Southern Hemisphere- most water located
-Mercator projection- flat representation
-Pictorial- most concrete; real obj. to symbolic; use pictures represent # of children prefer 1 food over the other
-Bar- more concrete than pie; represent 2 elements of a single subj.; # of books read by a group of students
-Pie (circle) - need understand concept of %- interpret; based on percentages- 100% possible; inappropriate early grades.Research info. Make interferences
- Line- present info. similar bar; uses points & lines; more abstract- more challenging; tracks more than 1 subj.; time period; decreases, increases
Intergrading Social Studies
-Literature- quality reading & culture
-Thematic units- select theme- content around it.
*ELL- common theme- content more accessible. Repetition- develops English Vocabulary while learning content.
Social Studies & ELL
-Textbooks- visual & graphic representations
-Concrete time lines- (not vague)certain & specific;
-Illustrations- fundamental meanings important concepts
-Books- Integrate lang. instruction w/ content
-Integration of content & lang. - strategy promote content area mastery & lang. develop.
-Cognates- words that are similar in 2 lang. Expand vocab. & enhance content area comprehension.
Make content comprehensible
Children sheltered form pressure of competing w/ English learners
Instruction- linguistically simplified w/ contextualized instruction, visual aids, hands on activities, & body lang.
Short & simple sentences: control length
Introduce vocab. Before lesson
Control speed & different type of intonation
Supplement oral presentations w/ diagrams, graphic organizers & manipulative make easier.
Gist of concepts instead of details
Way in which adults- support children in efforts communicate in native language (LI)
Structure provides support during construction of a building. Eliminated when complete.
Receive lang. support make cognitively accessible until achieve mastery in second language (L2). Once mastered support eliminated.
• Survey question read reflect recite review
• Study strategy- engaged entire reading process
• Survey- examines headings/major components- dev. Predictions & ques.
• Question- purpose of reading
• Read- look answers for ques.
• Reflect- monitor comprehension
• Review- what learned
Graphic organizers- visuals show relationships.
• Semantic web/tree diagram- shows relationships between main ideas & subordinated components.
• Time line- visual summary chronological events & ideal showing historical events in sequence.
• Flowchart- cause and effect; show steps in process- steps need to graduate college.
• Venn diagram- circles compare two components.
*vocab. Understand concepts of school
o Think pair share- wait time research. Pausing few seconds allows children reflect on ques. Can improve quality of response & performance. Think- poses ques. Pair up & share ideas. Share answers w/ whole class.
o Cooperative learning
Low anxiety learning envir. Students work together small groups achieve instructional goals
Different levels of ability- work together support each other ensure master objectives of lesson.
Deliver content & lang. instruction.
o Marzano & Pickering
Direct instruct. & practice and reinforcement
Student restate description own words
Create representation by drawing picture
Discuss terms with other students
Participate in games & activities reinforce vocab.
Captain John Smith
lead 1st English colony in Jamestown Virginia. Sentenced to death; Pocahontas saved him. Pocahontas married John Rolfe.
King Charles I
- granted Maryland Carter. Established refuge for freedmen (Catholics)
Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson
- Rhode Island; banned from Massachusetts b/ religious & political views. Sanctuary.
- Connecticut colony; seeking religious freedom.
- Pennsylvania colony; member of religion persecuted- Quakers. Colony safe haven for Quakers.
-Poor conductor of electricity: wood; anything that isn't metal
-Good conductor of electricity- metal, water, copper
- issued Emancipation Proclamation- all slaves freed. During Civil War. Freed slaves. made abolition a central goal of the war. declared free only those slaves living in states not under Union control.
Cabeza de Vaca
- 1st explorer of Texas. Houston.
- Met Caddo- very sophisticated. Not hostile; called Taysha- friend or alley; State motto Friendship came from them.
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
- Seven Cities of Cibola- golden cities. Explored Texas. Empty handed. Next 140 yrs. Region remained isolated.
Reconstruction- South destroyed war fought here. Focused in South mostly. Characterized by hatred & violence & hatred. Lincoln killed. Andrew Johnson new Pres. - hated by both North & South. Impeached later. Black codes- main obstacle. Black codes- restricted free assembly, jobs they can do. Eliminated them. Fourteenth Amendment- citizenship to blacks.
Ku Klux Klan- wanted to continue w/ black codes. Terrorized blacks. Wanted them not to vote or exercise individual freedoms. Jim Crow laws- legislation passed to control progress of blacks.
Railroad & inventions- economic recovery.
Civil rights movement- legal & political rights given to people.
• Bill of Rights- guarantees civil rights to American citizens.
• Sought equality for blacks. Kept from voting by poll taxes & literacy tests. Separate facilities: public places.
• Plessy v. Ferguson- segregation segregation, allowing separate but equal facilities for black & white students.
• Pres. Truman- ordered integration armed forces & introduced legislation in Congress.
• The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People- challenged the laws of segregation w/ the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, ruled unconstitutional to racial segregation in schools.
• Montgomery Bus Boycott- Rosa Parks, refused give up seat to white. Her action: leaders of NAACP form new organization called Montgomery Improvement Association.
o Dr. Martin Luther King- leader. Lead boycott for the bus company. Lasted year. SC- unconstitutional. Southern Christian Conference- nonviolent forms of protest: sit-ins, boycotts, marches. Assassinated. Result: Civil rights act.
o Civil right act- Pres. Lincoln- new civil rights laws & programs for poverty. Result: prohibited segregation in all public facilities & discrimination in education & employment.
Mexican American Civil Rights Movement- human rights.
Comanche & Apache
- since domesticated horses- fearless warriors & successful hunters- culture of buffalo. Extinct when buffalo annihilated
The Great Depression
- stock market crash; 10 yrs. Lost capital & jobs.
• New Deal- Franklin Roosevelt; revitalize economy & alleviate poverty
- Truman; warning help any nation in danger of falling under communist control. Result: involved in 2 major conflicts: Korean War & Vietnam War.
- War emerged after Russia took over Poland, built Berlin Wall, East Berlin. Not ever declared. Ended with fall of Soviet Union under leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev. Multiple smaller countries.
- grew out of longstanding conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States
1. The United States and the Soviet Union represent two opposing systems of government. In the United States, the government is elected by free elections. The people can form political parties to voice their political opinions. They also possess the right of assembly, of speech and of the press. In the Soviet Union, the government is formed by the Communist Party. The people do not have the right to form their own political parties. They do not enjoy the right of assembly, of speech and of the press.
2. Economic: The United States wanted to encourage free trade throughout the world. The Soviet Union wanted to shield off her own sphere from international commerce. Russia feared that trade with the West would involve the risk of Russia being opened to western influences which would have eroded the strength of the totalitarian regime. These differences led to much ill feeling between the United States and the Soviet Union.
3. After the Second World War, with the decline of Europe, power was largely shared between the Soviet Union and the United States. As one wanted 'to dominate the other, conflicts were inevitable.
War on Terrorism
- Attack twin towers- World Trade Center. We attacked Taliban in Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden- mastermind. Search for weapons led to war in Iraq.
Juan de Onate
- colonize New Mexico. 1st European settlement.
Robert de la Salle
- French settlement-Fort Saint Louis- Spaniards expelled them; missions control them.
San Antonio & Fort San Antonio de Bexar
- protection & support Texas
- permission bring Anglo-Americans to settle in Texas. Void later. Son Stephen got similar agreement. Settlers majority- Mexico army made- resulted in war
- leading state defense industry.
- Still rely on agriculture/ranching/oil but new high technology (electronic products) industries become top economic forces in state.
- 2nd largest state (Alaska 1st)
- 28th state
Kay Bailey Hutchison
first woman to represent Texas in the U.S. Senate
- help students identify how things are alike & different
- help recognize how a single topic is treated in 2 readings
- how they are unique & what they have in common
Inflation vs. Deflation
- Deflation: fall in general price level; value of the $ in your pocket increases & you are able to buy more.
- Inflation: rise in the general price level; value of the $ in your pocket decreases & you are not able to buy as much as you used to.
- Federal Reserve Bank: controls inflation & deflation; promote fiscal stability & economic growth & regulate inflation & deflation
Ysleta del Surr
- Spanish: 1st permanent settlement in Texas
- concept of the meridians of longitude
- based on lines of longitude or meridians. Lines run N to S
- West to East: New York City 6
- US 6 time zones
- Dallas- Central Time Zone
Supply & Demand
- Prices vary based on balance between the availability of a product or service at a certain price (supply) & the desire of potential purchases to pay that price (demand)
- Free enterprise: economy regulate freely; competitive market through supply & demand- minimum govt. intervention; greater choice/ better prices
System of Checks & Balances (3 Branches of Government)
- individual branches check others & make sure no one assumes full control
- Legislature- check executive by passing laws over Pres. Votes: 2/3 vote
- Executive: check Leg. branch by use veto & Jud. branch by appointing federal judges
- Judicial: check other 2 through process of judicial review: declare Leg. unconstitutional or illegal
- Himalayas: tallest mountain in world
- U.S. highest mountain: Mt. McKinley (Alaska)
help any nation that falls under communist control
1. Thematic: particular topic- population density; economic, political, agricultural features
2. Reference: locations of places, boundaries of countries, states, countries; atlases, road maps
- Mercator projection map: navigation tool; grid- rectangular & lines of latitude all parallel; aid navigators since straight lines on map are velodromes or rumba lines (perfect for true direction); flat representation of Earth; cylindrical shape & probability make them more useful than globes.
Fancisco Pizarro & Hernan Cortes
- Fancisco Pizarro: conquered Incas of Peru
- Hernan Cortes: conquered Aztecs of Mexico
- figure on a map or nautical chart used to display orientation of the cardinal directions, North, East, South, & West
- design printed on chart or map for reference
Forms of Government
1. Communism: state controls economic activity- rejects free enterprise/capitalism
2. socialism: Govt. controls production & distribution- goods/services labor
3. Democracy: majority rules; people elect candidates- Govt.
4. Monarchy: king or queen leads; supreme powers/dictator
- Pledge of Allegiance: a promise to follow our country's laws
Francis Scott Key
Star Stangle Banner
John Adams 1st Pres. lived there
Bill of Rights
- 1st 10 amendments
- created protect citizens against powers of government outlined in Constitution
Branches of Government
1. Executive: Pres. & Vice Pres (elected every 4 yrs.); commander & chief; appoint: cabinet members, judges, pardons, veto, legislation
2. Judicial: Supreme Court & lower courts; federal judges courts nominated by Pres. appointed for life; SC- 9 judges/final ruling
3. Legislative: congress- senate & house of representatives; senate: 2 per state (100 max for the 50 states); house- based on population of each state; Congress- makes laws, collects taxes, declare war, impeach, override Pres. vote.
Largest Rivers in U.S.
1. Mississippi: longest Minnesota to Gulf of Mexico
2. Ohio: Pittsburgh to Missouri
3. Rio Grande: border between U.S. & Mexico
- help students review material, help them see relationships between 1 bit of information & another
- Venn diagram
1. North America- consists of Canada, U.S., & Mexico; 3rd largest
2. Central America
3. South America
5. Central Eurasia
6. Middle East
7. North Africa
8. Sub Saharan Africa
9. South Asia
10. East Asia
Saint Augustine & Roanoke
earliest European colonization efforts in North America
- discovered because spindle top oil field near Beaumont
- Texas leading producer of oil.
- key component of Texas economy
- factors & events in other parts of world can affect Texas econmy. If oil production decreases it would cause slowdown in state economy activity.
- literacy based approach- ideal expose cultures of many ethnic & groups in U.S.
- select theme- integrate around content areas
- ELL- multiple makes content more cognitively accessible for them; concepts & vocabulary related to the themes in various content areas
- 1. identify theme: TEKS & interests
2. designing it: key obj. & TEKS guided
3. gather materials
- ELL- repetition of content- opportunity develop English vocabulary while learning.
- take in account interest of child, state curriculum, & relevance
- organization of curriculum based on a theme or topic
- integrates basic disciplines: reading, writing, math, esp. with broad subj.
- hear similar info. in various instructional segments & various sources
- apply cognitive with creativity based on real life situations
- must be broad enough
vertical alignment & horizontal alignment
- horizontal: degree to which an assessment matches the corresponding content standards for a subject area at a particular grade level. Must match standards. Represent standards: target which teachers focus their instruction on.
- vertical: Alignment different parts entire education system. When standard based tests are established teacher plan instruction way follows standards. Standards & assessments must aligned with one another.
transmission of objects, ideas, & behaviors from 1 society to another.
Relative & absolute location
- Relative location means to locate a place relative to other landmarks
- absolute location is locating a place using a coordinate system.
ex: U could give the relative location of St. Louis, Missouri as E. Missouri along the Mississippi River SE of St. Charles, but the absolute location of St. Louis is 38°43' N 90°14' W
Consumer price index
average price of essential goods & services calculated over one month period
individual adopts much or all of another society's culture
circular flow & interdependence
- The circular flow - show how income flows through the economy between producers and consumers. Makes clear that consumers and producers are interdependent.
- Consumers rely on producers to make goods and services available.
- When consumers buy products, money flows to producers.
- producers rely on consumers to provide labor for production.
- When labor is provided, people get paid and that allows them to buy goods and services.
- scientists came to believe that it was possible to identify & explain the laws that govern the universe
- Newton Law of Motion
* an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
* object in motion stays in motion with same speed & direction unless acted upon by unbalanced outside force
* acceleration produced when force acts on mass & greater mass of object being accelerated the greater amount force needed accelerate that object
* for every action their is an opposite reaction
- begin w/ seed or fertilized egg; goes through metamorphosis until formed
- stages: creation, maturation, reproduction, death
- insect: short cycle, reproduction once than death
- frogs: move from aquatic envir. to land
- plants: transported (wind, waste, water), need air to germinate, proper temperature, water; need light to grow (photosynthesis). Root system: extract water & minerals. Only food: photosynthesis
- pollen: contains sperm nuclei, transferred from male part of the flower (stamen) to female part (pistil). Fertilized ovules become seeds. Flower itself dies; causes hay fever
- basic purpose is to establish socially acceptable ways for resolving disputes among citizens
The Magna Carta
due process laws
Limited & Unlimited Government
- Limited government: A government in which everyone, including those in authority, must obey the laws. This is common in Western culture. Example: The U.S. constitution
-Unlimited government: A government in which no limits are imposed on the ruler's authority. The leaders don't have to follow the same laws as everyone else.
Having complete control over people's lives. (complete political,social,and cultural control over their subjects: Hitler)
Lyndon B. Johnson
- 36 President
- Mustered congressional support for rural electrification, space program, & civil rights legislation
- greatest impact on environment & geography of agriculture in U.S. Great Plains
Classroom & Laboratory Safety
1. Substitute less hazardous material: use cleaning products instead of chemicals in pure form
2. avoid experiencing w/ human cells & bodily fluids
3. send home safety contract: parent signature
4. document all accidents: another teacher witness
5. store acids/caustic chemicals in cabinets close to floor
standard measurement & metric system
- U.S. uses combination of standard & metric system
- use to be sure the info. is clear, accurate
- U.S. only place uses English system for business transactions
-Metric system: International business/engineering/natural sciences: use standardized, precise system of weights & measurement; system of fractions: shift decimal point
- TEKS: use both; but scientific data reported using metric
- Promoted: hands on activity & experimentation: develop problem solving skills
- electronic & printed material: answer their questions
- Science thinking skills
1. observing: use senses
2. Communicating: talking, drawing, acting
4. organizing: grouping/seriating/ sequencing
5. relating: cause & effect & classification
7. applying: developing strategic plans & inventing
- Learning cycle: best supports science learning; 5-E Model: Robert Karplus
* science taught: consistent w/ nature of science:
discovery & investigation. taught in active process.
opportunity experience nature by exploration through
hands on investigations & experiences
* promote ability to think: critical & independent
thinkers. Promote independent/critical/higher level
thinking. Not telling students answers. Let them find
answers through experiences & hands on exper.
* Teaching: match how students learn- 3 stages 1. assimilate (take in info w/ senses) 2. disequilibrium (confusion: go back & assimilate more info.) 3. accommodation (aha moment: feel cognitive relief- figure
- 5 E: engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate
1. Engagement-Object, event or question used to engage students.Connections facilitated between what students know and can do.
2. Exploration- Objects and phenomena are explored.Hands-on activities, with guidance.
3. Explanation- Students explain their understanding of concepts and processes.New concepts and skills are introduced as conceptual clarity and cohesion are sought.
4. Elaboration- Activities allow students to apply concepts in contexts, and build on or extend understanding and skill.
5. Evaluation- Students assess their knowledge, skills and abilities. Activities permit evaluation of student development and lesson effectiveness.
- not told concept or info. they must discover the concept themselves through hands on investigation, observation
- metric system- obtaining all measurement data
- English learners: teachers need to demonstrate & provide a model of what the end results should look like. Work in groups: they can interpret & exchange ideas about
data & scientific reasoning.
- presentations, charts, graps: conclusion, present rest of class. Help them form new research ques. or hypotheses.
- Scientific vocab.- they are introduced after hands on experience. Once hands on experience teacher will introduce them. In elaborate students use vocab. in
experimentation, writings, esp.
TEKS Science tools
5- hot plates, burners, test tubes, flasks
Science for all
- teachers need to help students abandon stereotypes hold on science & scientists
- posters: both sexes, race, different fields
Science in real world
- important connect science they are learning to real world around them: broaden understandings & promote usefulness, value
- in 5 e model: best make connection in application/elaboration
Debating scientific issues
- operating at high cognitive level important to intellectual development
- important for students have awareness of ethical, personal, societal, & economic both positive & negative perspectives
- energy as source of fuel & electricity: major issue threatening the economic/environmental/personal status
- fossil fuels: nonrenewable & 1 day expended: gasoline
- alternative sources of energy: wind/hydroelectric/geothermal
Science subject matters
1. life science
2. physical science
3. earth science
- symbiotic relationship- two organisms from different species interact.
- Parasitism: one species benefits, the other is harmed
- Competition- neither species benefits
- predator-prey relationship: An interaction between two organisms of unlike species in which one of them acts as predator that captures and feeds on the other organism that serves as the prey.
- nitrogen cycle: The nitrogen cycle is the path of how nitrogen travels through the food chain. Starting in the soil, then going into plants, being eaten, then excreted back into the food chain to start it again.
- Ecosystems: share unifying components & characteristics wherever they are located on earth.
- what makes organisms living: must carry life functions & composed of one or more cells
- nonliving char.: no life functions & not composed of cells.
- all scientific observations described by their char. or properties
- representations help better understand how something appears/function
- make models solar system: help better explain form & function
- help better understand the actual concept the model represents
- not the same as the actual science concept:limited
Models can be:
1. physical: model solar system
2. conceptual: concept map or analogy
3. mathematical: formula
- assessed regular basic
- occur on some scale (large or small), every day
- authentic assessment: measuring learning as it is occuring; allows teachers to adjust the instruction according to student learning & potential difficulties in leraning
- alternative assessment: verbal reports/laboratory practical exams/story writing
- frequent informal,formal (traditional), alternative: plan instruction
- communicate progress to students so they can self monitor their own learning.
- science component of TEKS assessed grades: 5,8,10 (TAKS)
anything that takes up space & has mass
the amount of space that matter takes up
mass & weight
- mass: amount of matter in an object or thing.Property of a body that causes it to have weight. Ex: what students are measuring in laboratory is object's mass.
- weight: the amount of gravitational force exerted over an object. Changes as object goes from one level of gravitational force to another. Ex: Earth to Moon weight changes but mass doesn't.
Measuring dry chemicals
1. place & weight dish
2. place chemical inside
3. subtract weight glass dish from total to get real weight
- Specific types of atoms; 112 kinds of matter: period table;cannot be broken down by chemical mean
- cannot be broken down and made into other substances
an organized chart to display all known elements
- basic building blocks of ordinary matter. Join together to form molecules, most of the objects around you: desks, human beings, air
- composed of particles called protons, electrons & neutrons.
the center of the atom - make up of the proton and neutron - makes up 99.9% of the mass of an atom. Mass located here.
A particle found in the nucleus of an atom that does not have an electrical charge. Neutral
negatively charged subatomic particle located in the electron cloud.moves in the space around the nucleus
positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus of an atom. It is counted to identify the atomic number
Combined elements. Are 2 or more elements that are bonded together in chemical bond. Smallest particles of a substance.
a substance that is made from two or more simpler substances in an atom and can be broken down into those simpler substances. Combined chemically. Ex: water
- There are different types of atoms, like hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms. When these atoms join together in a certain way they become a compound
- water is a compound
- caused by air masses that have different amount of heat, may be warm air mass that is moving toward a cold air mass
- energy moves from warmer to colder
temperature at which the air needs to be for the water to condense out the air in liquid form as precipitation
measure of the percentage of water that is in the air
measure air pressure
measure relative humidity
Properties of Matter
1. physical:Way matter looks & feels. Includes: density, color, hardness.
* color: how matter is reflected or perceived by human eye
* density: mass that is contained in a unit of volume of a given substance
* hardness: resistance to penetration offered by a given substance
* conductivity: ability of substances to transmit thermal or electric current
2. thermal: matter sensitive temperature changes. Heat & cold changes physical properties of matter; chemical properties remain unchanged. Chemical: water when exposed
to color temperature changes from liquid to solid. Chemical: heat water change from liquid to water (water vapor).
3. electrical: conductor or nonconductor.
* Conductive: transfer of electric current from 1 point to another. Metals
* non-conductive: wood & rocks
4. chemical: elements same group won't react, different groups will. more separated more chemical reaction occur. Metal trash can rust if left out in rain.
Matter's 4 states
1. solid: have mass, occupy a define amount of space or volume or definite shape, more dense than liquids
2. liquid: have mass, occupy definite volume, don't definite shape, take shape of container
3. gas: mass, don't definite volume, no definite shape, take shape container, least dense
4. plasma: formed at extremely high temperatures when electrons are stripped from neutral atoms: stars. no definite shape, cannot be classified as sold/liquid/gas
- solid to liquid: melting
- when water boils a liquid becomes a gas
- Ice cream in bowl changed from solid to liquid in few min. Which caused this change?Heat was added to the ice cream.
- combinations of 2 or more substances, each substance is distinct from the other, made up of 2 or more types of molecules & not chemically combined
- no definite weight proportions
- heterogeneous: uneven distribution of the substances in the mixture throughout: milk
- homogeneous: components are evenly distributed throughout
- mixtures that are homogeneous, components are distributed evenly & even concentration throughout
- The solute is substance that is smaller amount that dissolves & you add into the substance that is the larger amount- solvent
* solvent: water
* solutes: solids, gas, liquid, salt, ammonia
- when substances change from 1 state of matter to another: ice melting
- change in substance that doesn't change what the substance is made of.
- Ex: melting ice, tearing paper, chopping wood, writing w/ chalk, mixing sugar and water together
- can be reserved
- substances that were combined are no longer the same molecules
- burning wood, mixing baking soda & vinegar, rusting nail
- cannot be reserved
- gives off heat
- changes color
- gives off heat & becomes colder
- gasoline in automobiles
- burning of any kind
- oxygen in our bodies: controlled burning bodies give off heat
- digestion of food
- cooking & baking
- photosynthesis: plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide gas & water into food for the plan known as glucose (stored leaves, stems, fruits of plants)
* peach tree: tree takes energy from sun converts chemical energy. Used for survival & growth. Excess stored in leaves & fruits produced
- when heat is given off in a chemical change
- firewood burning, hand warmer
- heat absorbed in a chemical change (combination becomes colder)
- cold packs, combination of baking soda & vinegar
- capability of predatory to develop new physical traits to improve their ability to capture prey represents
- development of fatty tissue & hibernation typical of bears: system of survival
Principles of energy
energy is available in many forms: heat, light, solar radiation, chemical, electric, magnetic, sound, mechanical
3 states of energy
1. kinetic: an object possessing energy b/ of its ability to move
* once the vehicle is moving, energy changes to kinetic
2. potential: the energy that an object has as the result of its position or condition
* a vehicle parked in a garage
3. activation: the energy necessary to transfer or convert potential energy into kinetic
* when the driver starts the energy using the chemical energy stored in the battery & the fuel, potential becomes activation
- can be transformed from 1 to the other
- type: heat, sun (solar radiation), electricity, magnetism
potential energy (vehicle parked in garbage)
activation (starts engine using chemical energy stored: battery fuel)
kinetic (vehicle is moving)
Heat & temperature
- Heat form of energy
- temperature- measure of heat
- thermometer: measures temperature; made from mercury & alcohol (expands when heated)
* water boils: 212 F or 100 C
* water freezes: 32 F or 0 C
Heat & Light
- sun: most common form of energy
- solar energy: provides heat & light for animals & plants
- photosynthesis: plants capture radiant energy from the sun & transform it into chemical energy in the form of glucose
- chemical energy: stored in the leaves, steams, fruit of plants
- kinetic & body energy: mammals consume plants & fruits get energy they need to survive.
- kinetic: used for movement & to do work
- heat: required element for all warm blooded animals, humans
- cold blooded: solar energy heat body
Transfer of heat
1. conduction: transferring heat/electricity through a substance. Occurs when 2 objects of differing temperatures are placed in contact w/ each other & heat flows from the hotter object to the cooler object
* cooling of a car
* place metal spoon on open flame & spoon became hot burned his hands
2. radiation: energy that travels at high speed in space in the form of light or through the decay of radioactive elements: microwaves, cellular phones, sunshine, X-ray, (nuclear weapons, medicine, nuclear power: damage & death)
3. convention (convection): flow of heat through the movement of matter from a hot region to a cool region. Warmer air rises( expanded/spread out: less dense) ;cooler air sinks (denser). Occurs: when the heating & circulation of a substance changes the density of the substance. Ex: heating water on the stove. Responsible: storms in tornado & hurricanes, ocean currents
- a complete path through which electric charges can flow
- MUST have:
*a source of electricity-Ex. a battery
*a device using electricity-Ex. a bulb
*an on/off switch
- all metal parts are touching & the electrical charge is able to continue to be transferred through the circuit
- a light switch or other on button closes the circuit & allows electricity to flow
- ringing door bell, turning on the lights
- there is a break someplace in the flow of electricity through the circuit
- a switch or off button opens the circuit & stops the electricity flow
- when you let go of the doorbell button, turning off light
producers, consumers, & decomposes
- producers: green plants produce oxygen & store chemical energy: grass
- consumers: animals: take chemical energy from plants
- decomposes- cleaning up environment- feeding dead matter recycling; - fungi/bacteria
- herbivores: plant eaters
- carnivores: eat meat
- omnivores: eat plants & animals
types of clouds
- cumulus cloud- a sunny day
- cumulonimbus cloud: rainy/thunderstorms
- lightening form of static
- it is not flowing or being transferred in the way it is through a metal wire, caused by friction
- walk across carpet w/ socks get shock when touch metal doorknob.
- the electrons in the atoms of the substance, negatively charged, pulled away from atoms nucleus, giving obj. negative charge. Attracted positive charge. Both quickly jumps towards each other: sharp sound.
- travels in ways & straight line path
- electromagnetic energy that is measured from about 7700 to 4000 angstroms, and can be seen by humans.
- wavelength of light we can see, eyes see as white light
- white light: composed of host of wavelengths of light eyes cannot distinguish: rainbow (ROYGBIV)
- when light travels in a straight line , hits an object or substance and is bent
- bending of light result in colors of light becoming visible: see rainbows in sky
- advantage: concave & convex lenses: Work when light passes trough it changes the focal point. Used in eyeglasses to correct focal point. Used in cameras, microscopes, telescopes. Spoon is concave & convex
- Light traveling though a pair of eyeglasses
- light waves bounce back: looking at mirror
- When light is bounced off an object it can not pass through
- causes:vibrations (guitar string/ubber band/banging of drum)
- sound as certain loudness: frequency, pitch, amplitude
- much travel through a medium: liquid, solid, gas
- travel best through solids: more molecules to vibrate
- travel least well w/ gases
- 2 types:
* longitudinal: move parallel to the direction the wave moves
* transverse: move perpendicular to the direction of the wave
- sun: supplies the energy that drives the water cycle
1. the role of evaluation & condensation is to recycle & redistribute the water in the water cycle
2. as precipitation falls, water is filtered back to underground water deposits called aquifers
3. stored water from rivers & oceans
- breaking down of physical material
- rocks, soil, and minerals decomposing; occurs without movement.
-breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces by mechanical (physical) or chemical means
- takes place as rocks are broken down into progressively smaller pieces by effects of weather
removal of soil and rock in the natural environment; involves movement. Moves by water, wind, ice, or gravity.
- Movement of rotation around sun constitutes a year, the closer the planet is to the sun, the sorter the year
- Which 2 planets are closest to Earth- Venus and Mars
- Mercury is smaller than Earth
- sun: center of our solar system
- hills: found on both Earth and the moon
Magnetism & gravity
- magnetism: force of attraction or repulsion between objects that result from (+) & (-) ionic changes of the objects: usually metal
- magnets: 2 poles; poles different kinds (North & South) attract 1 another
- gravity: w/out all objects would not hold onto its surface; responsible for raindrops falling to Earth
- membrane flow of nutrients & water enter & exit cell
- DNA allow reproduction
- require supply of energy
- cells: composed of the basic unit of life
- earthworms: respiration from skin
- plants: excrete gases from tiny pores underside leaves called stomata
- Amoeba: ingests food- false foot (pseudopodia)
- insects: mate by responding to chemical attractants called pheromones
- small round rod shaped bodies from in the cytoplasm of most cells
- function- aerobic respiration: produce enzymes for the metabolic conversion of food to energy, consumes oxygen
- plants: allow carry on respiration where they use oxygen & excrete carbon dioxide & water just like animals.
* chloroplasts: organelles used for taking in sunlight & using energy to convert another gas, carbon dioxide, & water taken from roots to make glucose. contain chlorophyll
* photosynthesis: chlorophyll organisms convert light energy into chemical energy
* glucose: simple sugar that is the food for the plant
Ex: animal cells, plants
1. monera (bacteria)
2. protista (protozoans)
4. plantae (plants)
5. animalia (animals)
- simplest & most primitive type of cells
- lack of nucleus; have 1 strand of deodorization acid (DNA)
- some external whip like flagella for locomotion
- 3 shapes:
1. cocci (round)
2. bacilli (rods)
3. spirilla (helical)
- Ex: bacteria
- unicellular organisms
- only group prokaryotic
- bacteria, blue-green algae, spirochetes
- evolved from prokaryotic
- structurally & biochemically more complex
- only they contain many structures separated from other cytoplasm by a membrane.
- nucleus contain DNA info.
- mitochondria: own membrane, proteins
- generate energy from cell
- plants only have chloroplast: allowing trap sunlight as energy called photosynthesis
- protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
- more complex organizational system
- unicellular, aquatic habitats, not plants or animals
- protozoans, algae
- multicellular, variety forms & shapes, no chloroplast: cannot produce food through photosynthesis
- digest dead materials for energy, water, carbon
- mushrooms, mold, mildews, yeast
- multicellular, moss, ferns, have chloroplasts (trap sunlight through photosynthesis).
- photosynthesis: use carbon dioxide from envir. & supply oxygen needed for survival of animals
- multiple forms & shapes, specialized senses & organs
- insects, worms, mammals, birds, humans
- most sophisticated type
- highest level evolution
- begins w/ sun; provides energy for plants
- plants are consumed by animals
- animals consumed by other animals
- animals die food source for fungi & plants
- adaptation: when ecosystem (food cycle) is disrupted; must adapt or die
- basic needs of living organisms for survival: air, water, food, & shelter
- groups of cells w/ similar functions
- organized together to perform a specific life function
- complex system of tissues working together to carry on 1 of the body's life function
- group of different organs working together to support & help carry out a life function & keep organism alive
- 200 bones
- ligaments: hold bones together by connective tissue
- not attached to bones
- forms the inner linings of our digestive system & controlled involuntarily by autonomic nervous system
- muscle of the heart, controlled by autonomic nervous system
Nervous System main divisions
1. somatic: allows the voluntary control of skeleton muscles,
2. automatic: involuntary; controls cardiac & glandular functions
caused by nerve impulses sent from the brain through the spinal cord to nerves to connecting skeletal muscles
- occurs to direct response to outside stimulus
- called reflexes
- when obj. in eye body responds by blinking away from it
-function:defend against foreign proteins/infectious organisms
- develop antibodies destroy invaders
- fever: occurs when body attacked by infectious organisms; fight invading molecules ; kill some bacteria
- basic in 5 or 6th grade
- menstrual cycle, can have babies
- Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that occurs in the formation of gametes such as egg and sperm.
- all cells have it; clear gelatinous fluid enclosed w/in a membrane
- growth caused by cell division
- chromosomes 1st replicate
- reproduction of skin, heart, stomach, cheek, hair
- Mitosis is the portion of the cell cycle when the cells nucleus is replicated & divided into 2 identical nuclei containing genetically identical material.
- 46 chromosomes
- Asexual reproduction is the formation of new individuals from the cells of a single parent.
- All plant organs have been used for asexual reproduction, but stems are the most common.
- 1 individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. Produced by mitosis.
- no mating or DNA
- production of sperm and egg cells.
cell division occurs in the formation of gametes:egg & sperm.
- 23 chromosomes each
- requires the combination of DNA between 2 organisms of the same species (male, female)
- copulation: humans; cross fertilization (fishes)
outside the body (reproduction); female lay eggs (ovum) males spray them w/ sperm to fertilize them
1. asexual: cutting portions of plant & replanting them
2. sexual: seeds produced by female & male plants, cross pollinated w/ help insects/other animals
* flower: reproduction organ of plant
* stamen: male reproduction organ, divided filament & anther, pollen are sperm nuclei
* pistil: female reproduction organ; ovary, style, stigma; wind place pollen on stigma. needs stick to bee: transfer male part to female part
* seed germination: seed sprouts into plant: requires air, water, heat
- hard, solid part of Earth's surface
- made of 1 or more minerals
- 3 descriptions: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
- crystalline solids formed directly from cooling magma/lava
- granite: type of 1; created from magma (inside Earth)
- lava: once magma reaches Earth's surface
- result of accumulation of small pieces broken off from preexisting rocks & then pressed into a new form
- 3 types: clastic, chemical, organic
clastic sedimentary rocks
made when pieces of rock/mineral fuse together
chemical sedimentary rocks
formed when water rich in minerals evaporates leaving minerals behind
organic sedimentary rocks
made from remains of plants & animals
* coal formed when dead plants are squeezed together
- secondary rocks formed from igneous, sedimentary.
- when magma comes in contract w/ rocks this happens
- limestone exposed high temperatures creates marble
lava that has cooled forms a rock w/ a glassy look
- most common material in Earth's crust
- considered one have to be found in nature & never part of living organism
- different shapes, sizes, and colors. identified by how much they sparkle, or by how hard they are
- alternating rise & fall in sea level w/ respect to the land, produced by gravitational attraction of moon & sun
- Tides on the Texas coast usually occur twice daily
capture of carbon from carbon dioxide in atmosphere by plants to make glucose
- most air we breathe is nitrogen
- lightening causes nitrogen combine w/ oxygen
- major component of DNA & amino acids
building blocks of proteins
increase soil erosion & lead tragedies: mudslides
- carrying soil from 1 place to another: water or wind
* creates: beaches, sand dunes, landforms
- all sources produce: turn turbine generates electricity
- nonrenewable: petroleum (decayed animals/plants), fossil fuels: gas, coal, oil (living matter)
* best classified as a nonrenewable resource? Aluminum
-renewable: wind, solar energy, tree
- all students measure once a year on it
- health related fitness assessment- use criterion referenced standards- measure physical health
- enables human beings to produce language & utilize correct language rules
- impossible assign age
- point is to identify these stages & develop a working framework for the readers
- influenced by the learners level & quality of exposure to the native language
- adaptable: adjusts to the language being learned
- combination of innate ability, imitation of what is said/heard, environmental influences
- Language Acquisition Device (Noam Chomsky): born w/ innate abilities & mechanisms to develop language
- learning strategy that young children use replicate someone's behaviors/actions/phrases
- opportunity produce language by observing & replicating their caregiver's phrases & words
- age 2 doesn't meet communication needs
- parents assisting w' language acquisition by communicating w/ child & using adult version of language.
- come to school strong vocab. & lang. background
- main purpose of language
- direct error correction (grammar errors): less impact early childhood children
- modeling: best way support lang. development
6 language components
study of the sound system of a language
basic units of sound
graphemes (individual letters)
- represent phonemes
- through: 7 graphemes or 7 letters; 3 sounds (th, r, u)
study of the structure of words & word formations
- smallest representation of meaning
- cars: 2 morphemes (car & s)
- ways in which words are organized & arranged in a lang.
- kernel sentences: sentence w/ 1 verb (Sam ate peas.)
- vocabulary of a language
- vocab. one most variable component of lang. Hot might have more than one meaning
- way that meaning is conveyed in a lang. through the use of its vocabulary
- connotation & denotation
- implied meaning of words & ideas
- idiomatic expressions: non-standard speech, slang or dialect that are natural to native speakers of a language.
- teachers needs teach idioms to provide background knowledge ; provide description of idiom
- literal meaning of words & ideas
- dog bites: a dog might actually bite if you go over fence.
- context can affect the interpretation of communication
- teachers should teach ELL the rules of context
- How are you? ELL might try more information than what person wanted to hear
- hidden rules of communications understood by native speakers of the same language
- everything in () needs to be x
- a (b+c)=ab+ac or (a x b) (a x c)
- 8 (5+2)=(8x5)(8+2)=56
- order doesn't change results
- a+b=b+a same a x b= b x a
- 6+8=14 same 8+6=14
- 5 x 8=40 same 8 x 5= 40
property of zero
- sum of # & 0 is the # itself
- the product (x) of # is 0
- 8+0=8 2+0=2 3+0=3
- 8x0=0 9x0=0 1x0=0
associative property of multiplication & addition
- the order doesn't change the sum
- (2+3)+5=10 same (3+5)+2=10
- (2x3)+5=30 same (3+5)+2=30
set of data is the difference between greatest & least # in set. Subtract to find the difference
middle value of all #'s. List in order. If 2 values- add than divide by 2
- add all #'s than divide by # of values in set
# appear in set more frequently
semantic mapping in Social Studies
- make connections between the vocab./words they are learning those have seen priory
- put word or phrases on board. Ask brainstorm related words in each category. Talk about your own connections w/ the book
- identify critical features of a given concept
- takes the form be + V ing.
* He is singing.
* They are sleeping.
regular past tense
- on the contrary, conversely, on the other hand
- in writing: create cohesive & coherent compositions
- used in compositions addressing contrast
- pronoun: word that takes the place of a noun
- clause- a group of words containing a verb and subject.
She is hungry.
- when, if, because, after, before
-contain both a subject and a verb.
- doesn't t form a complete sentence.
- Example: After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad
When a verb ends in -ing: walking, cheating
Formal literacy assessment
- teacher made tests
- district exams
- standardized test
Informal literacy assessment
- ask child retell a story
- observations, journals, written drafts, & conversations
- anecdotal records
- miscue analysis
- assess oral communication skills- checklists/retell stories/anecdotal records
Individual w/ Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
- Children w/ crutches or assistive disorder should?
* crutches/walkers: allowed to hit the ball from a seated
position & use the crutch to bat
* be provided w/ appropriate modifications for participation
in physical ed. activities
- requires the use of an external device to display info. & images being presented : TV, computer
- used in journalism, fine arts, education
- internet- primary type: blog, email, websites
ELL Challenges: Mathematics
1. assumption students prior knowledge of terms- denominator
2. terms mean something different somewhere else
3. Vocab. encompasses variety of homophones (words pronounced same;different meaning)
ELL Linguistic accommodations for TAKS content
1. info. 2 language side by side
2. test administer- read questions
4. use dictionaries
4. bilingual glossaries
5. simple language- test administrator
6. can use visual or nonverbal communication make content clear
ELL (material beyond their reading level)
- record selected passages
- pair them off
- introduce vocab. prior to reading
-teach content vocab.- concrete experiences
- introduce instruction strategies- self monitoring. Students read aloud- pause to ques. themselves meaning of passage.
- able to connect the initial letter of words w/ its representing phoneme
- listen & follow story. Develop awareness of the story structure
- represent main idea of story through drawings & retell major events in story w/ or w/out illustrations
- use illustrations & prior experiences- predictions & to support comprehension
- some degree phonemic awareness
- prior contains meaningful info.
- imitate the reading process & display basic reading process & display basic reading readiness skills like directionality movement (eye moment top-bottom, left to right)
- participate in shared reading activities & follow & match words w/ their punctuation when point to the words as they read
- use pictures- support comprehension
- can change form- cannot totally disappear
- cannot be created or destroyed, only change in form
- find # can be divided by both
2/4 = 1/2 (2 goes in both)
2/6= 1/3 (2 goes in both)
- drawled out
- equivalent expression w/ parenthesis
- (a+b)2= (a+b)(a+b)
- showing place value by multiply each digit in a #
- 523= 5x100+2x10+3+1
1 9 8 4
sculpture, painting, basket, weaving, metal working, ceramics
- during the process of learning when teacher or students monitor progress- still possible modify instruction
- focus on progress
- strengthens or improve object being evaluated- examine- quality- delivery
- judging- end of activity
- examine effects/outcomes of some object
- occurs end of time
- single grade/score- represent students performance
frequency words (sight words)
- words that are more common in things we read & write: at, had, the, a but, in, that, got, ran, can
- need to recognize automatically spell them
- not spelled or pronounced in logical ways
language used by African Americans
cause: the movement of continental plates
- D- directed
- teacher models the process of creating & correcting predictions- to strengthen comprehension
- 1. sample text: read title/pictures- develop hypothesis about content
2. predictions: based on sample of text
3. confirm or correct predictions
- most at beginning
Promoting Oral Communication
1. dramatic play: role play retell life situations
2. language play: rhyme/alliteration/song/tongue/twisters
3. show & tell: bring something & tell about it
4. puppet show: orally communicate through puppet & convey info.
5. pair interview: paired learner info. from each other. Report large groups
6. presentation: communicate what they think
complementary color pair
- green & red: 2 colors whose reflected lights combine to produce white or gray
- primary= red, | yellow | blue
complementary= green purple orange
red & green; yellow & purple; blue & orange
- 2 independent words are joined create new words
- knowing meaning each word guide students understands compound word
- oral or written questions
1. cloze test: passage w/ omitted words the test- taker must supply
2. convergent: only 1 answer is correct
3. divergent: more than 1 answer is correct
same sound, spelling; differ in meaning
- words sound same but spelling differently & different meanings
- blue & blew
- spelled same, more than 1 pronunciation, different meanings
- measurement- might have difficulty w/ conservation
- might think a split apple is more than a single apple
- 1st grade- acquired
- consonant vowel consonant (CVC)
- begin w/ CVC when teaching phonemic & phonological awareness
- C V C
b a t
c a t
1. semantics: think about the meaning & what is already known topic. ELL not familiar: familiar topic from their geographical area
2. syntactic: word order in a sentence- clues; illustrations identification of a word
3. pictorial: visual information- pictures & charts
4. structural: letter groups- morphemes; prefixes/inflectional endings; common- other countries
- they're=they are
- you're= you are
- introduce contractions w/ long version: avoid confusion
- only song that can be legally copied
- music w/out author
- songs extened copyright protection
- cowboys/folk songs
criterion referenced tests
- M/C, quizzes
- measure how well a person has learned a specific skill
- comparisons of a large # of students
- measure each student against uniform obj. or criteria
- compare others
- each student- compared to pre-defined set of standards
- goals: student- mastered skills
- pass or fail
- object: see if they learned material
Critical Thinking skills
- analysis: teachers need to guide their children to analyze the ideas presented in text then to make inferences
- evaluation: assess their inferences
- synthesis: to draw conclusions abut their ideas
stores: information is presented in a sequence & all of the events in the sequence are repeated
4 strands: Art curriculum
2. creative expression
3. historical/cultural heritage
4. critical evaluation
allows speakers the option of deviating from the main topic w/out being penalized
- church= ch
- thanks= th
- show= sh
- gh, ght, sc, wr, pn
- 2 or more letters that represent 1 sound
- voiceless: ELL- introduce contractions together w/ the long version of the word (they're: they are, can't: can not)
Which letters do you teach 1st?
- introduce letters most likely encounter in text: m,a,t,s,p,h
- introduce 1 or 2 consonant & 1 vowel sound: car, on, sat
Language Interference: ELL
- use phonology of their language to pronounce words in English: replace v with w
- incorrect word stress
Learning to read vs. Reading to Learn
- Learning to read
* decode & make sense of language
* select structure & predictable story lines- guide
* pre-k to 2nd grade
* reading for pleasure
- Reading to Learn
* decode written language
* understand the content & obtain vital information from it
* understand how text is organized in the content area
Language Experience Approach
- provides the schema/experiential background to facilitate the comprehension of the story
- teacher records a student's story saying each word aloud while writing it down
- activating prior knowledge
W: want to know
L: learn & still want to learn
- freedom: own mechanics & invented spelling
- purpose: communicate, teachers- no corrections only comments on content & encouragements
- sense of ownership
- use safe environment w/ language
- teacher: learn about their intents
- teacher- model standard convention
polygon with 2 sides
- describes the pitch contour of a phrase or a sentence that is used to change the meaning of the sentence
- utterance appear to be identical but convey a different meaning
* Question: How are you?
* Answer: How are you?
Instructional Reading Level
- match the student to the right text for guided reading
- 90% of the words correctly when reading
Informal Reading Inventories (find reading level of children)
- basal readers: contain informal inventory graded by reading levels. Begin with passages at reading level until child is not able to respond to comprehension questions
- include comprehension questions
- whole # includes all positive & negative numbers includes 0
- doesn't include decimals or fractions
- all positive integers or non negative integers
- doesn't include 0
- participation in conversations: vocabulary & the format of conversations need to develop oral language
- parents: communicating w/ the child & using the adult version of language: come to school with strong vocabulary & language background
- movement children have to master in order to travel or move w/in a given space
- walking, running, sliding, leaping, jumping, hopping, skipping
- type of literature- classified in multiple categories
- facts need to be accurate, needs to be pleasing & engaging
- kids need to be able to see their images in the books
- girls & boys need to be depicted in the books: strong, able
- picture books: illustrations & text work together communicate story
- traditional: oral tradition/handed down from 1 generation to another
-Multicultural: written by people from other countries
- modern fantasy: make believe/can't be true
- historical fiction: set in past, real people/events: fiction laced
- nonfiction: real world point of origin: higher level thinking
- biography: real people
- poetry: use of words to capture something: senses
inductive teaching vs. deductive approach
- inductive teaching: learning through experience
- deductive approach: learning step by step
- parallel: types of lines that will never meet. 2 figures that cross each other at exactly 1 point. Lie same plane. Same distance apart
- perpendicular- 2 figures intersect to form a right angle. 2 angles meet & crosses it at a right angle
- acute angle- less than 90 degrees
- obtuse angle: more than 90 degrees less than 180
- right angle: exactly 90 degrees
- circle: measured 360 degrees
- vertical angle: formed by 2 intersecting angles that are alike and are opposites of each other which means angles are congruent. Equal in measure. Lines cross
- step by step problem method
- used to achieve mathematical result
>= greater than
<= less than
algebraic expressions rules
- add & subtract terms: add or subtract only if they have the same exponent
- multiply terms: add exponents- (x5)(x6)=x11
- divide terms: subtract exponents- x8÷x6= x3
Performance based assessment
- assess students on how well perform certain tasks
- evaluate both processes used & output they produced
- work on problems- use skills learned
- time consuming
- training needed
- projects, observations, checklists, anecdotal records
- time consuming
- measuring learning as it is occurring: adjust instruction accordingly to the students learning & difficulties
- can include all relevant information
- disadvantage: a lot of time & difficult assign grade
- word for word action for action
- account event of child's day
- detailed or brief
- content: what was said, or done
- ability to connect letters w/ sounds, & to create words based on those associations
- letter & letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken English
- peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
- emphasize phonemes: words that begin w/ same consonant sound or letter
- tongue twisters: best known
- Impressionist: Edward Manet
- Cubism: Pablo Picasso
- Surrealism: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Salvador Dali
- Muralists: WWI & 2, John Sloan, Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood
American w/ Disabilities Act
- placement of students in least restrictive environment
- modify so they can participate
- yoga, walking, running, bicycling, swimming
- involves both contraction & movement of the body
- requires great deal of oxygen
- must be continuous & rhythmic
- 20 minutes
- quickly accurate recognition of letters/words, language conventions
- achieved through practice: text reading level of child
Babbling Stage (language acquisition)
- 0-6 months
- reflexive crying to communicate with caregivers
- play vocal using linguistic & non-linguistic sounds: mm/dada
- follow certain commands
- know familiar people & voices
- understand patterns- convey anger, excitement
- understand patterns: ask questions
Holophrastic stage (language acquisition)
- 1 word
- 11-19 months
- imitate inflections & facial expressions of adults
- recognize their own name
- follow simple instructions
- point objects & request assistance
- understand word concepts
Two-Word Stage (Language Acquisition)
- 13-24 months
- Pivot- Words that can be used for multiple functions:no, all
- open- Words that are generally used for one particular situation i.e. milk, home, doggy, juice, pants
- combinations of these 2 to create the subject & predicate of the sentence
- higher degree of linguistic develop. child goes beyond 2-2ord stage
- words: content words w/ high semantic value used in multiple situations
- use of function words limited at this stage
- sentence: subject, verb, object, adjective: Milk all gone.
Balance Reading Program
- combines skill based (phonics Instruction) to teach decoding & meaning based (whole language strategy) to teach reading
Basic Physical Education Skills
- locomotor: walking, running, leaping, jumping
- non-locomoter: kneeling, standing, pushing, pulling, bending
- manipulative: throwing, batting, kicking, catching
- check off ones students display
- capturing behaviors that cannot be accurately measured with a paper or pencil test
- disadvantage & advantage: its structure provides consistency but inflexibility
when plants take solar energy from sun & transform it to usable energy
- promote reading fluency
- reading in a group
- ideal for ELL b/ pronunciation & fluency problems not publicity noticed
- use the model provided by fluent readers
- digital: alarm clock, separate hours w/ colon; easy to read
- analog: 2 hands; wall clock
- way check comprehension
- passage with omitted words: the test taker supplies them
- test maker: decides whether require test taker supply exact word or accept synonyms
Things that are likely to lead to illness & disease
- leading causes: lifestyle related
- result people's chosen behaviors
- causes: stress, dietary sugar, isolation
Home school connection
- key: meet needs of all students
- make families feel valued & welcomed
- have an open door policy
- parents: point to objects/labels in grocery store- begin developing foundation of reading
- parents: have child make a grocery list record prices discuss ways can save
- observation tool administered by teachers in the bilingual or ESL classroom for ESL speakers
- used evaluate composition & writing performance of students in Texas
- TAKS- 4 levels
- rote counting: verbal repetition of #'s
- used foundation for building understanding of # concepts of combining, separating, & naming amounts using concrete objects as soon as language development occurs
- begins age 2-3
What two songs have same rhythm
Happy birthday & the star spangled banner
Types of Media
- media: any means to convey information to others
- print: newspaper/magazines/direct mail; disseminate information in print form; static- once published can't be changed
- visual: can stand by itself; use of visual imagery; photographs/ paintings- meaning w/out text; integral part of print
- electronic: requires external device: TV, computer, internet
Historical style periods
- Gothic: flying buttress/high vaults/pointed arches/stained glass windows
- Romanesque: buttress & rounded arches/only few pointed arches
- byzantine & renaissance: domes & rounded arches
Guided practice reading
- teachers: provide support & resources
- work w/ their zone of proximal development w/ assistance of peer or adult
• Reading instr. that uses developmentally appropriate texts.
• Strategy based: decoding, comprehension strategies.
• End result: increased independent use of reading strategies by the students.
• Important to utilize in-depth instruction so students are guided through thinking processes of interacting the texts.
• occur more frequently- emergent & beginning level readers
• sixty minutes per day
• Reading strategies are applied skills; plans of action that students take come across problems during reading. Strategy instruction teaches a student to think in a certain way and to apply this thinking to a variety of reading materials.
• Instruction must combine reading & strategy instruction; students learn how to read as they are actively reading. Acquiring strategies- students to consciously monitor & control their own reading process.
• Characteristics reading strategies share: (1) They must occur within the context of a reading situation. (2) They teach students how to think about reading.
• Teaching strategies steps: explaining why the strategy is important, modeling, guided practice & internalization.
Parents: Literacy Development
- read stories
- create literacy opportunities
- initial consonant sound (b- in bag, sw- in swim, t in tape )
Types of Writing
- Descriptive: provide info.; nonfiction/fiction
- narrative: story or an account; recount of an incident; maybe autobiographical to prove a point; fiction/nonfiction
- persuasive: convince reader of something; magazines/newspapers; promote; present a point; provides evidence
- expository: explain/clarify ideas/textbooks
- TEA, CAT, ITBS, SAT
- compare an students performance to others
- goal: decisions their opportunities can be met
- discriminate between low/high actives
- compare test takes to each other
- students compared who knew most or least
- reported as percentage
Music introduced in K-4
tambourine, triangle, sticks
- Orff: un-pitched rhythm instruments: wood blocks, triangles
* melodic/barred instruments: xylophones, metallophone
- Kodaly: goal teach music literacy; singing: achieve it
- mariachi: group of musicians play violins, trumpets
- tejano music: accordion, tejano orchestra
Independent Reading Level
student pronounces 95% or more of words correctly
Frustration Reading Level
student pronounces less than 90% of the words correctly
ability to compare and contrast objects
often referred to as a slide; an object moves into a new position w/out flipping or turning
often referred to as a turn; object is turned from a central point
referred to as a flip or mirror image moved over a line of symmetry, the shape must remain the same size and the same shape
same shape, same size
- occurs when perfect matching occurs * squares: 4 lines; non-squares: 2 lines; circles: infinite # lines
paved the way to economic Recovery
Economy of Texas
High Technologies industries
words that consist of a single syllable: dog, cat, sank
memory related devices, help students remember the steps in reading a chapter effectively
to make 5/2 (improper fraction) into an mixed # you divide the bottom # by the top #
- Ken Goodman
- describes the variation that occurs when students try to decode & guess the meaning of printed words
- assess oral reading
1. select material: reading level 500 words
2. you & student get copy
3. record it
4. can't help
5. ask questions about the story
6. analyze it
set of words that differ in only 1 phoneme: pail & bail
- ability to recognize & manipulate components of the sound system of a language
- ability to segment words into smaller units like syllables & phonemes
- separate words w/in a sentence
musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound using a mallet
set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to grow & reproduce & maintain their structure, & respond to the environment
child's ability to understand that words have small components called sounds, & that these sounds together create syllables & words
- method of teaching beginners to read & pronounce words by teaching them the phonetic value of letters/letter groups/syllables
- sound out the words
Formal vs. Informal assessments
* teacher made tests
* district exams
* standardized tests
* effective instruction: both formative & summative
* paper & pencil tests
* criterion referred tests: TAKS
* norm-referenced tests
* informal reading assessments: what they can/cannot do
* running records
* informal reading inventories
* retell story
* observations, journals, conversations, checklists
* anecdotal records
- speaking ability assessed informally in class
- 1st teachers determine if speech is intelligible: can be understood by native speakers w/ minimum effort
- intelligibility problems: dialectical variations, speech disorders (native speakers)
phonation: disorder any kind abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold
resonance: disorder abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract
shuttering & cluttering
- shuttering: multiple false starts or the inability to produce the intended sounds
-Cluttering: children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult
- Lisping: produce the sound /s/, /sh/, /z/ w/ their tongue between the upper & lower teeth
- ability to conceptualize & separate words into their basic pronunciation components, which are syllables
teaching beginners to read & pronounce words by teaching them the phonetic value of letters, letter groups, & syllables
Circumference of a circle
- the radius is half of the diameter
perimeter of rectangle
perimeter of triangle
side 1 + side 2 + side 3
perimeter of square
area of rectangle
height x width
area of square
- length=5 (5)(5)=25
area of triangle
(base x height) ÷ 2
- prior knowledge is activated, new prior knowledge is formed & interest is stirred up
- P=total # of outcomes
total # of outcomes in the sample space
- total # of outcomes divided by total # of outcomes in the sample space sample space: set of all possible outcomes of an experience permutation: all possible arrangements of a given # of items in which the order of the items make a difference
/ \ / \
2 1 6 4
/ \ / \
3 2 2 2
2 x 3x1
Greatest Common Divisor
- largest divide with out having an remainder
- largest multiple of both that can be divided w/out remainder
- 42 3
___ = ___
- multiple of them all
- 2, 3, 4
2- 2,6,8,10,12,14= 12
3- 3,6,9,12,15 =12
4- 4,8,12 = 12
Thematic Instruction with ELL
- allow opportunity to develop English vocab. while learning content
- common theme multiple area makes more cognitively accessible
- concepts & vocab. related to theme in various content areas
Linking prior knowledge to new knowledge
- teacher: process text containing factual information through reading strategies, relate new information to prior knowledge
* teachers guide: question facts, intent author, check answers through text verification
* help them: figure meaning unfamiliar vocabulary
- encourage students to revisit text, take notes, review important facts
- only have 2 distinct natural #'s divisors: 1 & itself
2: 2 & 1
3: 3 & 1
Principles of Art & Elements of Art
- Principles of Art: the guidelines that artist's follow to create art & to deliver their intended message
- Elements of Art: the individual components that combine to create artwork
1. Drawing: uses drawing to stand for writing; communication for purposeful message; read drawings: writing on them
2. Scribbling: pretend they are writing; awareness difference between writing & drawing to communicate; left to right/top to bottom
3. Pseudo Letters: attempt create forms that resemble letters, cannot always identified as such; invented spelling
4. Random Letters: letter sequence learned from his or her name; create individual letters from alphabetic; letter strings
5. Invented Spelling: try to connect the sounds & letters create words; m for mother
6. Transitional Spelling: 1 letter represent entire syllable; may not use proper spacing
7. Conventional Spelling: resembles adult writing
- design to show a particular theme connected w/ a specific geographic area
Independent Practice- Reading
- students: practice skills/strategies have learned during modeling
- practice: text at their independent & instructional reading level
- main purpose : fluency development
- should separate read silently for comprehension & read aloud to promote fluency
- the best way of helping is with real reading & writing activities
- wood sound
- musical instrument in the percussion family
- wooden bars stuck with plastic/wooden/rubber mallets
How can volcanoes help build up new land?
By adding lava to Earth's surface
Sunspots appear darker than rest of sun's surface b/ they are
cooler than the rest of the sun's surface
tiny pieces of stuff like dust
innermost part of the earth: made of iron and some nickel.
layer of earth found between the crust and the core
pass through the layers of the earth after an earthquake.
uppermost portion of the earth;is brittle & has an average thickness of 20 miles
- non-flowering plants ;reproduce when pollen moves from male cones to egg-bearing female cones.
- Pine trees
Objects that do not allow light to pass through them
Objects that allow some light to pass through them
pattern formed by repetition of single shape, when repeated, fills the plane w/ no gaps & no overlaps
- sum of the measures of the 3 angles is 180 degrees
- right triangle: a2+b2=c2 Pythagorean theorem
- isosceles: 2 equal sides & 2 equal angles
- equilateral: all angles equal
- scalene: 3 unequal sides
- measure 360 degrees
- half: 180 degrees
- quarter: 90
- 2 angles same: congruent
- intellectual abilities: thinking & reasoning is dominated by pre-operational thoughts- pattern of thinking egocentric, centered, irreversibility
1. sensorimotor (birth-2)
2. preoperational (2-7)
3. concrete operational (7-11)
4. formal operational (11-adult)
- ball & socket: shoulder & hip
- hinge: elbow & knee
- pivot: head of the spine
- gliding: carpal (wrist); tarsal (ankle) bones
- angular: wrist & ankle
- prek & k: swing, climb, skip
- age 10: catch fly ball; softball
- K: play w/ other children, develop muscular strength (jumping, hanging, hopping), roll sideways, tos ball
- 1: proper foot patterns (jumping), work w/ partner, clap simple rhythmic beat, control in balancing
- 2: skills in chasing/fleeting/dodging, cue key elements: hand dribble, foot dribble, kick
- 3: transfer bodies on & off equipment (boxes/balance beam), manipulate skills (underhand throw, overhand throw, catch and kick
- 4: change speed, catch football pass on run, jump height,
5- heart rate exercise, identify harmful exercises
6- modify games improve
1. rhythm: varied lengths of sounds & silences in relation to the underlying beat
2. melody: succession of sounds & silences that may move upward, downward, or stay the same
3. harmony: accomplishment of supportive sounds to a melody: pitched instruments, singing rounds
4. form: structure or design of the music
5. expression: dynamics & timbre
* dynamics: louds & softs in music
* word up: pitch level: music goes higher or moves up
6. timbre: tone color in music: quality of sound that distinguishes 1 voice or instrument from another
perception, creative expression/performance, historical & cultural heritage, & critical evaluation
36 inches or 3 feet
8 fl oz