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Rhetorical Devices - definitions and examples

Diction

a writer's or speaker's choice of words
Example: We throw In as many fresh words as we can get away with

Ethos

The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
Example: I'm not a doctor, but I play one on tv

Pathos

a style that has the power to evoke feelings
Example: Emotions can be an electoral trump card

Logos

an appeal based on logic or reason
Example: Bad Reasoning as well as good reasoning Is possible

Hyperbole

a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
Example: I've told you a million times not to exaggerate

Satire

witty language used to convey insults or scorn, witty language used to convey insults or scorn
Example:

Verbal Irony

occurs when what is said contradicts what is meant or thought
Example

Clarify

make clear by removing impurities or solids, as by heating

Contradiction

(logic) a statement that is necessarily false

Reiterate

to say, state, or perform again

Qualify

describe or portray the character or the qualities or peculiarities of
Unless

Parallel Structure

Similarity of structure in a pair or series of words, phrases, or clauses. The basic principle of grammar and rhetorical demands that equivalent things be set forth in coordinate grammatical structures

Schemes of Balance

Isocolon- occurs when the parallel elements are similar not only in grammatical structure, but also in length (number of words on even number of syllables) this is very effective, but a little goes a long way

Affable

(adj.) Courteous and Pleasant, Sociable, Easy to Speak to
Example: She has an affable smile

Euphemism

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Truism

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Synecdoche

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Litotes

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Apostrophe

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Isocolon

A scheme of parallel structure which occurs when the parallel elements are similar not only

Antithesis

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Anastrophe

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Paranthesis

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Ellipsis

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Asyndeton

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Polysyndeton

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Alliteration

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Assonance

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Consonance

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Anaphora

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Epistrophe

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Anadiplosis

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Chiasmus

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Polyptoton

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Metaphor

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Similie

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Metonymy

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Onomatopoeia

Natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words
Ex. Hiss, buzz, hum, crack, whinny, murmur

Oxymoron

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Paradox

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Rhetorical question

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Metaphor

A figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggestioning some similarity. (Metaphorical language makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought provoking, and meaningful)
Ex. The assignment was a breeze; poverty was the cage in which we were entrapped

Personification

Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects ( personification is used to make abstractions, animals, or objects appear more vivid to the reader)

Prose

A major division of genre- refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms. ( in prose the printer determines the length of a line; in poetry, the poet determines the length of a line)

Rhetoric

From the Greek for "orator", this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.

*Rhetorical modes

This flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. The four most common rhetorical modes (often referred to as "modes of discourse") are as follow:
A. The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting the idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. The AP language exam essay questions are frequently expository topics
B. The purpose of argumentation is to prove the valdity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reason, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
Persuasive writing is a type f argumentation having an additional aim of urging some form of action
C. The purpose of description is to recreate, invent, or visually present a person, place, event or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque. Descriptive writing may be straightforward and objective or highly emotional and subjective
D. The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. Tis writing mode frequently uses the tool of descriptive writing

Sarcasm

From the Greek meaning "to tear flesh," sarcasm involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or redicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device but not all iro statements a sarcastic( that is, intended to ridicule). When well done, sarcasm can be witty and insightful; when poorly done, it is simply cruel

Satire

A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule. Regardless of whether th work aims to reform behavior, satire is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing. It can be recognized by the many devices used effectively by the satirist: irony, wit, parody, caricature, hyperbole, understatement, and sarcasm

Fallacy

An error in reasoning. Writers use fallacies to deceive or trick readers

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