Molecules: Cell structure and functions1.1

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Cell

The basic unit of life.

Plant Cell

A type of cell characterized by a rigid cell wall and the presence of many chloroplasts, a cell containing endoplasmic reticulum, a nucleus, Golgi body, a vacuole, a cell wall, a cell membrane, chloroplasts, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes

Eukaryote cell

Has nucleus, many organelles. examples are: animals and plants; larger than Prokaryote cells

Prokaryote cell

lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus and organelles; the cell type also known as bacteria; smaller than Eukaryote cell

Cell Wall

Inflexible (rigid) barrier found only in plants. Helps provide shape and structure. Also acts as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell. Found in plant, bacteria, and fungi; not found in animals and protozoa.

Cell Membrane

Flexible barrier between the cell and the environment. Is selectively permeable, which means that it allows only certain substances to pass through it.

phospholipid bilayer

plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing the outside and nonpolar tails facing the inside. heads-face the watery substance on both sides

Cytoplasm

The "living" part of the cell, extending from the nucleus to the cell wall.
All of the cell organelles and organic materials in the cell excluding the nucleus.

Organelle

The name for a membrane-bound structure with a specific cell function.

Nucleus

Organelle that acts as the control center for the cell and houses genetic information (DNA).

Chromosome

a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material

Nucleolus or Nucleoli

Structure(s) found inside the nucleus that produce ribosomes.

Chloroplast

a structure of plant cells that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food; site of photosynthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Organelle composed of a series of folded membranes. Acts as a transportation network for proteins and enzymes.
May be "rough" (#3) or "smooth" (#4).

Endoplasmic reticulum

a cell structure that transports proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.

Smooth ER

The site of lipid synthesis and responsible for breaking down toxic substances. (no ribosomes)

Rough ER

A network of interconnected membranous sacs covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secrete proteins.

Golgi body

receives proteins; sorts, modifies, packages, and distributes them to other parts of the cell or exit the cell.

Vacuole

an organelle that stores food, water, and other materials needed by the cell; plant- large; animal- many small;

Pili

short projections that help attach prokaryotes to surfaces for reproduction

Flagella

long, whiplike structures that aid in locomotion and feeding and are less numerous than cilia; present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Cilia

short, hair-like structures that enable movement of cells or aid in the movement of other materials; present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Prokaryote

An organism that possesses prokaryotic cells; cells that lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound structures. The only prokaryotes are bacteria.

Eukaryote

An organism that possesses eukaryotic cells; cells that possess a nucleus and other membrane-bound structures. Eukaryotes include all organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) but bacteria.

Three components of the "cell theory":

1. All living things are composed of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of organization (structure and function) in living things.
3. All cells come from preexisting cells.

Ribosomes

Organelles that serve as the site for protein synthesis (where proteins are assembled).

Cytosol

Liquid part of the cell that surrounds and suspends the cells.

Golgi Body (Apparatus)

Packages, modifies, and distributes newly synthesized substances. Activates enzymes.
The "Post Office" of the cell...
(Shown as the pink, folded structure in the diagram)

Vacuole

Fluid-filled storage sac (large in plants, small in animals).

Peroxisomes

Organelle in liver cells; contain enzymes (such as catalase) that help detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and hydrogen peroxide.

Mitochondria

Bean shaped organelle where glucose is broken down to release energy by cellular respiration. Potential energy is stored in the form of ATP, a chemical that acts as the cell's "currency".
The "powerhouse" of the cell.

Chloroplasts

Organelle capable of photosynthesis; using light energy, this organelle combines carbon dioxide and water to form glucose (sugar).

Chlorophyll

A green pigment found in chloroplasts that absorbs light energy.

Microtubules or Cytoskeleton

The "scaffolding" of the cell; provides structure and support.

Cilia and Flagella

Structures that help cells move.

Cilia

Hair-like structures that help paramecium move around.
These structures are also found lining your respiratory tract to move mucus across its surface.
These structures are also found lining the oviduct and help move eggs through the female reproductive tract.

Flagella

This whip-like structure helps move single-celled organisms (such as Euglena).
This structure also moves sperm cells.

Lysosome

This organelle contains digestive enzymes used to "split" substances apart.
This organelle also helps to breakdown decaying and worn-out cell parts.

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