An Italian diplomat and writer who wrote a book describing the ideal member of the court and the ideal woman of the court. He lived during the High Renaissance.
A king of Spain who inherited the Spanish throne and Austrian/German territory. He also served as the Holy Roman Emperor
A Tuscan poet from Florence who lived during the early Renaissance. He played a major role in the revival of classical texts of Latin antiquity due to his passion for these texts.
A political theorist who wrote "The Prince", a book that taught rulers to be successful by balancing mercy and cruelty and rejecting Christian morality as necessary. He lived during the High Renaissance in Florence.
A sculptor who designed the Medici tomb, painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and sculpted "David". He lived during the High Renaissance in Italy.
Often referred to as the ideal "Renaissance man", he was a painter, sculptor, scientist, and architect from Florence whose drawings became the first modern scientific illustrations.
A Swiss historian who lived in the 19th century and wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy". He gave the notion of history as "Zeitgeist".
A period of cultural rebirth and revival of classical Greco-Roman ideals and literary and art forms that happened in Italy from 1350-1530.
Pico della Mirandola
An Italian philosopher who lived in the mid-Renaissance. His book "Oration on the Dignity of Man" expresses his views that humans should be studied, as they are God's unique creation.
A Dominican monk who took control of the Florentine republic after the Medici were removed from power. He opposed the papacy on grounds that it was corrupt and welcomed the French invasion as a "cure" to Italy.
Peace of Lodi
A peace agreement created from 1453-1454 signed by major city-states of Italy: Florence, Milan, Venice, and Naples. It created peace for about 40 years.
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes accurate and natural depiction of natural surroundings including landscapes and the human body.
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes the revival and study of the classic Greco-Roman fields of learning such as the belief of man as a proper focus of study. It also focused on reviving and correcting classical texts.
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes love for one's city-state and serving it by being involved in politics and using one's talents to serve the city-state's greater good.
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes developing one's talents to the fullest and being skilled in multiple fields to become the "Renaissance man".
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes focus on one's current life on Earth rather than focus on one's next life (the afterlife or salvation).
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes separating oneself from the crowd and being an individual with unique ideas.
A value that developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It emphasizes the belief that it is acceptable to accumulate wealth and goods and that they will not deny one entrance into Heaven.
A Florentine artist who lived in the early-middle Renaissance and was known for his variability and breaking of defined standards along with his skilled use of perspective.
A painter who lived during the High Renaissance and succeeded Bramante as the architect of the dome at St. Peter's. He is known for a simple style and beautiful renditions of religious topics.
An architect who lived in the mid-Renaissance and was the first to apply theories of classical architecture to the Foundling Hospital in Florence. He also oversaw the building of the dome on the Florentine cathedral.
A Florentine diplomat, scholar, and humanist who served as a chancellor on the Florentine government in the mid-Renaissance.
A Florentine poet who lived slightly before the Black Death. He introduced Tuscan Italian as an exquisite language in his "Divine Comedy", making him one of the most influential people in the development of the use of the Italian language.
A Tuscan born in the early Renaissance who wrote the book "Decameron". He also wrote about pagan deities, challenging the Church for their control over the religious themes in literature and art.
A Tuscan painter who wrote "The Lives of the Most Illustrious Painters" and coined the term "Middle Ages". He lived at the end of the Renaissance.
A Tuscan poem written by Dante shortly before the Renaissance that incorporates Latin classical learning and Christian themes.
A Florentine family who took control of Florentine political life in the mid-Renaissance and generally commissioned artwork by great artists.
A Florentine sculptor who designed the bronze doors for the Baptistry in Florence after winning a contest in 1401.
A Florentine artist living in the mid-Renaissance who brought the Renaissance to households below the princely level by setting up a highly productive art workshop.
A Florentine artist living in the mid-Renaissance who was known to sculpt with metal and be very competitive.
A Florentine writer who lived in the mid-Renaissance and wrote "De re aedificatoria", a very influential "how-to" architecture books that set standards and principles still in use today.
An architect from Urbino who lived during the High Renaissance. One of his most famous achievements is the design of St. Peter's, which he notably increased in size.
Italy, before, after, and during Renaissance period. A city-state that was a part of the Papal States and served as the influence for those who revived classical texts from antiquity. It was under papal rule.
An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. It specialized in long-distance trade and the production of glass and had an oligarchic republic.
One of the most important city-states of the Italian Renaissance. It was ruled by the Medici family (in the background), and its economy was based upon banking, trade, and wool. It produced many of the period's greatest artists, sculptors, writers, philosophers, architects, and scholars.
An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. It had a dictatorship and specialized in the production of armor. It allied with France in 1494 against Florence and Venice.
An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. Its main economic specialization was agriculture. It had the least experience of the Renaissance culture and ideals.
Pope Leo X
A Medici pope who lived during the High Renaissance in Florence. He composed and played music himself and employed humanists as officials and envoys.
Pope Julius II
The pope of Rome during the High Renaissance. He drove the powerful Borgia family from Rome and was an enemy of Alexander VI.
Pope Alexander VI
The pope of Rome who divided the non-Christian world into zones for exploration and exploitation. He helped Louis XII invade France. High Renaissance.
Cosimo de' Medici
A wealthy Florentine banker who, with his family, took control of Florentine political life in the mid-Renaissance.
Lorenzo de' Medici
The Florentine grandson of Cosimo de' Medici who survived an assassination attempt in the High Renaissance. He extended his family's influence with the pope in Rome.
A government system that consisted of 9 members in Florence. They were elected by the guilds. They proposed laws and conducted foreign affairs. Renaissance period.
A humanist from Verona who lived during the mid-Renaissance. She lived a quiet and religious life and apologized for the weakness of women's nature, especially in the Garden of Eden.
A Florentine painter who used mathematical laws to pioneer the technique of perspective. High Renaissance.
A scholar who specialized in rhetoric during the mid-Renaissance. He traveled to Rome and Naples to lecture. He critically examined the Donation of Constantine and found it to be forgery. He believed that all ancient documents ought to be examined carefully, not just accepted as sacred.
An artist who used the technique of foreshortening to create his painting "The Dead Christ". Florence, High Renaissance.
A Florentine humanist and philosopher who lived during the mid-Renaissance. He combined Christian theology with Platonic ideals and emphasized the soul's connection to God through knowledge.
A Florentine humanist and writer. He wrote "Lives", a collection of short biographies of major Florentine figures. Mid-Renaissance.
Considered the first great painter of the Renaissance. He lived right before the Renaissance began. His paintings reflected humanity, emotion, and naturalism, something unseen since the classical age. Florence, late Middle Ages.
La Gente Nuova
A set of people who suddenly became wealthy as a result of irregular inheritance due to the Black Death. They spent lavishly and commissioned artwork, helping boost the start of the Renaissance. Italy, early Renaissance.
A powerful Milanese family that began as condottieri and used their military positions to become rulers during the mid-Renaissance. They were patrons of da Vinci and Bramante.
A mercenary of common origins, they were central to the political and military situation in Italy. Renaissance period.
A painter who lived in Venice during the High Renaissance. He was knighted by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He presented figures who had divine attributes but still retained their humanity.
A Dutch Renaissance writer who lived during the High Renaissance. He wrote "In Praise of Folly" which criticized those who did not truly understand the meaning of being a Christian: imitating Christ.
A humanist and artist from Florence who lived during the mid-Renaissance. He was the first to use ancient mythology for religious content, not only for subject matter.
A Florentine historian and writer who lived during the High Renaissance. He wrote "A History of Florence".