Chapter 18: Anatomy of the Blood Vessels

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Blood Vessels

A series of connected, hollow tubes that begin and end in the heart.

Pulmonary circulation

The path of blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium.

Systemic Circulation

Circulation that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium.

Pulmonary

_____ circulation provides our blood with oxygen.

Arteries

_____ carry blood away from the heart.

Veins

_____ Carry blood toward the heart.

Arterioles

Blood vessels branch until they become smaller and smaller vessels known as _____.

Capillaries

These are the smallest and most numerous of the vessels.

Capillaries

_____ are connected to arterioles with venules.

Exchange vessels

Capillaries are also known as _____.

True

True or False: capillaries are the only place for substances to exit or enter from the cells.

Capillary

exchange of oxygen happens at the _____ level.

Venules

Small _____ converge to form larger veins.

Right atrium

veins eventually dump blood into the _____ of the heart.

3

Blood vessels (with the exception of capillaries) consist of (#) levels.

Tunica Intima

The innermost level of a blood vessel.

Endothelial lining

The tunica intima has a _____ which gives it a smooth shiny surface and allows blood to flow freely.

Tunica Intima

This blood vessel layer has an endothelial lining which prevents blood clots.

Tunica Media

This is the middle layer of blood vessels.

False (greater in the aortas)

True or False: The tunica media is greater in the common carotids.

Elastic tissue and smooth muscle

The tunica media is composed of __________.

Tunica adventitia

This is the outermost, supportive layer of the blood vessels.

Arteriole

The blood vessel with the most smooth muscle (relative to size) is the _____.

Connective

The tunica adventitia is composed of tough _____ tissue.

True

True or False: veins are much more susceptible to clot formation as there is less pressure, blood moves slower and sits still longer.

Conductance

Arteries are also called _____ vessels, they conduct blood from larger arteries to arterioles.

Resistance

Arterioles are called _____ vessels, they constrict and dilate to alter blood flow.

Exchange

Capillaries are called _____ vessels, they allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste.

Capacitance

Veins and venules are called _____ vessels, they store blood.

Backflow

Veins contain 1 way valves which prevent the _____ of blood.

70

_____% of blood volume is found in venous circulation.

Aorta

The _____ is the major artery of systemic circulation

Left ventricle

The aorta originates from the _____ of the heart.

Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta

List the 5 branches of the aorta.

Coronary arteries

Branching off the ascending aorta are the _____ which supply the myocardium of the heart.

Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid and left subclavian artery

Branching off the aortic arch are the ___________.

Right common carotid and right subclavian arteries

The ________ branch off the brachiocephalic artery.

Thoracic

The posterior intercostals arteries branch off of the _____ aorta.

Celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, renal arteries, gonadal arteries and lumbar arteries

List the arteries which branch off the abdominal aorta.

L4

The aorta ends at the level of _____ by branching into a right and left common iliac artery.

Deep or superficial

Veins can be classified as either ______ or _____.

True

True or False: most deep veins run parallel to arteries and have the same name.

Vena Cavae

These return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium.

Superior vena cava

This drains blood from the head and upper extremity.

Inferior vena cava

This drains blood from the lower body.

Brachiocephalic veins and azygos veins.

Which veins drain directly into the SVC?

Internal jugular and subclavian veins

These two vessels join to form the brachiocephalics.

Azygos

This vein takes deoxygenated blood from the thorax and dumps it into the SVC.

IVC (inferior vena cava)

The right and left common iliac veins join together to form the _____.

Renal and hepatic veins

These veins drain into the IVC.

Superficial

_____ veins are located right under the skin and have no arteries of the same name with which they travel.

Cephalic

This vein drains the lateral arm and empties into the axillary vein.

Basilic

This vein drains the medial arm and joins with the brachial vein to form the axillary vein.

Medial Cubital

This vein is a V-shaped structure which connects the cephalic and basilica veins in the cubital fossa.

Great Saphenous

This vein is the longest in the body - starts on the medial foot and merges with the femoral vein.

Great Saphenous

This vein may be used to replace damaged veins in other parts of the body.

True

True or False: The brain receives a dual blood supply

Vertebral arteries and internal carotid arteries

Which vessels provide the blood supply to the brain?

True

True or False: The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen.

External carotid

_____ arteries supply the neck, face and scalp with blood.

Internal Carotid

The _____ arteries supply the majority of the blood to the brain.

Carotid Sinus

A dilated region at the origin of the internal carotid that functions as a baroreceptor.

Baroreceptors

These monitor and stretch based on blood pressure.

Subclavian

The vertebral arteries branch from the _____ artery.

Basilar

The vertebral arteries join together on the brain stem to form the _____ artery.

Stroke

Damage to the vertebral arteries could cause dissection and _____.

Circle of Willis

A circular arrangement of arteries that give off branches that supply oxygen to the brain.

Internal carotid artery and basilar artery

Which two arteries provide branches to form the circle of willis?

Occlusion

_____ of the blood supply to the brain may result in dizziness, confusion and/or stroke.

Superficial

External jugular veins are (deep/superficial) to the internal jugular veins.

External jugular veins

These drain posteriorly to the head and neck.

Subclavian

External jugular veins empty into the _____ veins.

Internal jugular veins

_____ drain the head, neck and face.

Subclavian

Internal jugular veins join with the _____ to form brachiocephalic veins.

Venus Sinus

Internal jugular veins drain most blood from the _____ of the brain.

Portal System

The end producs of digestion need to be transported to the liver so they are taken from the stomach, large and small intestines to the liver by the ______.

Portal vein, hepatic veins and hepatic artery

The portal system is made up of three groups of vessels; the ____ the _____ and the _____.

Nutrients

The portal vein transports _____ .

Superior mesenteric and splenic veins

Which two vessels make up the portal vein?

deoxygenated blood

Hepatic veins transport _____.

Liver

The hepatic artery brings oxygenated blood to the _____.

Portal Vein

This vein brings blood rich in digestive end products from the digestive organs to the liver.

Liver

The _____ is essential in the metabolism of fats, carbs, proteins; detoxification; storage etc.

Hepatic Artery

This is a branch of the celiac trunk which supplies oxygen to the liver.

Hepatic Veins

These drain deoxygenated blood from the liver and empty into the IVC .

True

True or False: The developing fetus relies on maternal blood supply to provide oxygen and nutrients as well as eliminate waste products.

Umbilical cord

The exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste between mother and fetus happens via the _____.

Vein / arteries

The umbilical cord is composed of one large umbilical _____ and two smaller umbilical _____.

False (blood should not mix)

True or False: Blood as well as oxygen, nutrients and waste is passed between mother and child in fetal circulation.

Veins / Arteries

In fetal circulation, _____ carry oxygenated blood while _____ carry deoxygenated blood.

Placenta

The umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the _____ to the fetus.

Umbilical Arteries

These originate from the right and left common iliac arteries of the fetus.

Ductus Venosus

This fetal vessel allows oxygenated blood to be carried toward the right atrium of the fetal heart.

True

True or False: The ductus venosus directs most of the blood away from the fetal liver and sends it toward the fetal heart.

Inferior Vena cava

The ductus venosus connects the umbilical vein to the _____.

Foramen Ovale

Valve-like opening with Interatrial septum which allows blood to flow from right to left atrium thereby bypassing the fetal lungs.

True

True or False: fetal lungs are not inflated so they do not need oxygen and do not create oxygenated blood.

Ductus arteriosus

This connection allows blood to flow from the pulmonary artery into the aorta thereby bypassing the fetal lungs.

Patent DA

Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is known as _____.

Ductus Arteriosus

This vessel of fetal circulation provides a second chance for oxygenated blood to go from the right ventricle to the aorta.

True

True or False: certain drugs can cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Internal Iliacs

The umbilical arteries branch off the _____.

Pulse

A pressure wave traveling through the arteries with each beat of the heart due to an alternating expansion and recoiling of arteries.

Heart rate, regularity of heart beat, strength of heart beat, and occlusion or blockage of artery

List the 4 pieces of information that taking a pulse can provide you with.

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