Blood & Heart

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The formed elements of blood include all of the following except
A) red blood cells
B) white blood cells
C) platelets
D) plasma

D) plasma

The structure of red blood cells is that of A)disks that are convex on one side and concave on the other B)irregularly shaped fragments without a nucleus C)relatively large cells with multiple nuclei D)biconcave disks that increases surface area

D) biconcave disks that increases surface area

Which of the following conditions would result in a low hematocrit? A)dehydration B)severe bleeding C)increased production of erythrocytes by the kidneys D)high levels of erythropoietin

B)severe bleeding

Damaged red blood cells are destroyed by cells called
A) leukocytes
B) macrophages
C) neutrophils
D) granulocytes

B) macrophages

The heme portion of damaged red blood cells is decomposed first into iron and
A) biliverdin
B) bilirubin
C) bile
D) copper

A) biliverdin

Erythropoietin is released by the kidney in direct response to
A) a decrease in the number of red blood cells
B) an increase in circulating biliverdin
C) stimuli originating in the lungs
D) a decrease in circulating oxygen concentration

D) a decrease in circulating oxygen concentration

In an adult, red blood cells are produced in
A) the spleen
B) red marrow
C) the liver
D) yellow marrow

B) red marrow

The production of red blood cells is dependent on adequate intake of
A) iron, folic acid, and vitamin B1
B) copper, vitamin K, and vitamin B12
C) iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12
D) zinc, vitamin K, and vitamin B1

C) iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12

The white cell that is not a granulocyte is a
A) lymphocyte
B) eosinophil
C) neutrophil
D) basophil

A) lymphocyte

The most numerous white blood cell is the
A) neutrophil
B) eosinophil
C) monocyte
D) lymphocyte

A) neutrophil

The white blood cell that forms antibodies necessary for immunity to specific diseases is the
A) basophil
B) lymphocyte
C) thrombocyte
D) eosinophil

B) lymphocyte

_____ function in clotting

thrombocytes (platelets)

The white cell that would increase in certain parasitic infections and allergic reactions is
A) neutrophils
B) eosinophils
C) monocytes
D) basophils

B) eosinophils

what white cell is imortant in phagocytosis?

monocytes

Diapedesis is
A)another term for phagocytosis by monocytes B)the mechanism by which leukocytes recognize foreign substances to attack C)the ability of leukocytes to leave blood vessels to reach the tissue D)the production of blood cells by red bone marrow

C)the ability of leukocytes to leave blood vessels to reach the tissue

The most mobile and phagocytic white cells are
A) neutrophils and monocytes
B) basophils and lymphocytes
C) eosinophils and basophils
D) monocytes and lymphocytes

A) neutrophils and monocytes

Platelets
A)contain a large, multilobular nucleus similar to neutrophils B)have a life span equal to that of erythrocytes C)arise from marrow cells called megakaryocytes D)develop in response to the hormone erythropoietin

C)arise from marrow cells called megakaryocytes

A form of cancer characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells is
A) Hodgkin's disease
B) lymphoma
C) leukemia
D) anemia

C) leukemia

The plasma protein produced by lymphocytes is
A) albumin
B) gamma globulin
C) fibrinogen
D) alpha globulin

B) gamma globulin

Albumin is made in the ______

liver

Most nutrients found in the plasma were primarily absorbed from the
A) liver
B) stomach
C) small intestine
D) large intestine

C) small intestine

what organ synthesizes plasma proteins?

liver

A platelet plug begins to form when platelets are
A) exposed to air
B) exposed to a rough surface
C) exposed to calcium
D) crushed

B) exposed to a rough surface

Substances believed to activate prothrombin include
A) calcium ions
B) potassium ions
C) platelets
D) glucose

A) calcium ions

_____ and ______ activate synthesis of prothrombin

calcium and vitamin K

Prothrombin is a plasma protein produced by the
A) kidney
B) small intestine
C) pancreas
D) liver

D) Liver

Plasma proteins including _________ and prothrombin are made in the liver

fibrinogen

The clumping of erythrocytes when different blood types are mixed is due to interaction between antibodies in the plasma and
A) antigens in the plasma
B) antigens on the erythrocytes
C) antigens on leukocytes
D) antibodies on the erythrocytes

B) antigens on the erythrocytes

A person with type A blood has
A) antigen A and the anti-B antibody
B) antigens A and B
C) antibodies A and B
D) antigen B and anti-A antibody

A) antigen A and the anti-B antibody

The blood type that lacks antigens A or B is
A) type AB
B) type O
C) type A
D) type B

B) type O

What blood type lacks either A or B antigen, but has both antibodies

Type O

Antibodies for Rh appear
A) spontaneously as an inherited trait
B) only rarely for poorly understood reasons
C) in response to exposure to Rh antigens
D) only in Rh-negative infants

C) in response to exposure to Rh antigens

Rh ________ can only be made by exposure to Rh ________.

antibodies , antigens

Blood is both heavier and more viscous than water.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Red blood cells in the blood lack a nucleus and therefore cannot synthesize proteins or reproduce.
A) True
B) False

A)True

Women typically have a higher red blood cell count than men.
A) True
B) False

B) False

What is another word for RBC count?

hematocrit

What is the average life span of a RBC?

100-120 days

Erythropoietin is produced by the spleen.
A) True
B) False

B) False

Where is the hormone Erythropoietin produced?

kidneys

Folic acid and vitamin B12 are necessary for DNA synthesis but the rapidity of red cell turnover makes this tissue especially vulnerable to deficiency.
A) True
B) False

A) True

Agranulocytes are white cells that have granular cytoplasm.
A) True
B) False

B) False

The term _________ refers to the histological absence of visible granules in the cytoplasm

agranulocyte

The five types of white blood cells are classified according to size, the nature of their cytoplasm, nuclei shape, and how they stain.
A) True
B) False

A)True

Granulocytes have a very long life span in circulating blood.
A) True
B) False

B) False

________, _______, and ______ white cells live only hours to days

Eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils

Lymphocytes account for 25-33% of circulating leukocytes and live for many years.
A) True
B) False

A)True

A normal white count is 15,000 to 20,000 WBC's/cubic millimeter of blood.
A) True
B) False

B) False

A normal WBC count is ______-_____ per mm3

5,000-10,000

A differential count lists the percentages of the types of leukocytes.
A) True
B) False

A)True

The cytoplasmic granules of basophils contain heparin and histamine.
A) True
B) False

A)True

_________ secrete heparin and histamines

Basophils

Globulins are plasma proteins that play a significant role in maintaining osmotic pressure.
A) True
B) False

B) False

The main function of most globulins is in_______

immunity

_______ is the most common osmotic molecule

albumin

Potassium is the most abundant electrolyte carried in plasma.
A) True
B) False

B) False

The most abundant cation in plasma is ______

sodium

A blood clot forming abnormally in a blood vessel is a thrombus.
A) True
B) False

A) True

After the Hemoglobin is broke down the heme breaks down into biliverdin which turns into what

bilirubin

In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the globin chains...
A)are converted into biliverdin by macrophages B)are converted into bilirubin by macrophages C)are broken down by macrophages into amino acids D)are stored in various tissues E)contribute to the color of feces

C)are broken down by macrophages into amino acids

In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the iron...
A)is transported by transferring to the liver B)is transported by transferring to the spleen C)is transported by transferring to the red bone marrow D)all of the above E)none of the above

D)all of the above

The sequence in the breakdown of the non-iron portion of the heme is... A)heme, bilirubin, biliverdin, conjugated biliverdin, biliverdin derivatives, feces and urine B)heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces and urine C)heme, bilirubin, conjugated biliverdin, biliverdin, biliverdin derivatives, feces and urine D)heme, biliverdin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces and urine E)heme, conjugated biliverdin, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, feces and urine

B) heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces and urine

Free bilirubin is transported by the blood to the liver.
A)True B) False

A)True

Iron is transported in the blood by transferrin.
A) True B) False

A) True

External cardiac defibrillators are used for
A) high blood pressure
B) myocardial infarction
C) sudden cardiac arrest
D) high cholesterol

C) sudden cardiac arrest

The visceral pericardium is also known as the
A) epicardium
B) myocardium
C) endocardium
D) fibrous pericardium

A) epicardium

The uppermost or most superior part of the heart is the
A) septum
B) apex
C) base
D) great vessels

C) base

The _____ is the most inferior part of the heart

apex

The thickest layer of the wall of the heart is the
A) myocardium
B) epicardium
C) ectocardium
D) endocardium

A) myocardium

The _________ is the thin inner layer of the heart.

endocardium

Purkinje fibers are located in the
A) walls of the right and left atria
B) interventricular septum and ventricles
C) walls of the left atrium and ventricle
D) interventricular septum

B) interventricular septum and ventricles

The tricuspid valve is located
A) between the left atrium and left ventricle
B) between the right atrium and right ventricle
C) between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
D) between the left ventricle and the aorta

B) between the right atrium and right ventricle

The right atrium receives blood from the
A) inferior and superior venae cavae
B) pulmonary veins
C) pulmonary artery
D) aorta

A) inferior and superior venae cavae

The _______ ________ return systemic blood to the right atrium.

venae cavae

The valve between the chambers of the left side of the heart is the
A) semilunar valve
B) mitral (bicuspid valve)
C) aortic valve
D) tricuspid valve

B) mitral (bicuspid valve)

The ______ _______ prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium from the left ventricle

mitral valve

Cardiac pain is due to
A) prolonged contraction of cardiac muscle
B) interruption of blood supply to cardiac muscle
C) damaged heart valves
D) inflammation of heart muscle and valves

B) interruption of blood supply to cardiac muscle

Referred pain from the heart results from insufficient oxygen supply to cardiac muscle is called what?

angina pectoris

Which of the following correctly describes the events of the cardiac cycle? A)the right atrium and ventricle contract and relax, then the left atrium and ventricles contract and relax B)contraction of the chambers of the left side of the heart, contraction of the chambers of the right, relaxation of the left, relaxation of the right C)both atria contract and both ventricles relax; then both ventricles contract and both atria relax D)both atria contract and both ventricles contract; then both atria contract and both atria relax

C)both atria contract and both ventricles relax; then both ventricles contract and both atria relax

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