Endocrine theory 2

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Insulin

Increases the transport of glucose into a cell, stimulates the synthesis of proteins and fats, stimulates the formation of glycogen

Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone

control plasma levels of calcium

What is the stimulus for the release of insulin?

high plasma levels of glucose

Which of the following is characterized by low blood volume?

diabetes insipidus

Which disorder is caused by hyperthyroidism

Graves' disease

The neurohypophysis

is the posterior pituitary gland

Testosterone is best described as

virilizing

Which group is incorrect?

hormones of the anterior pituitary gland: ACTH, prolactin, TSH, oxytocin

Bronzing

is characteristic of chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency (Addison's disease)

TSH

is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

The person with _________ is most likely to receive insulin therapy.

hyperglycemia

"Sugar, Salt, and Sex" is descriptive of

cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone

Which of the endocrine glands is divided into anterior and posterior lobes?

Pituitary

Hypocalcemic

may be caused by a deficiency of PTH

Insulin

is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.

This gland secretes two hormones: one hormone elevates blood glucose and the second hormone decreases blood glucose.

pancreas

Catecholamines

include epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine.

Insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, and oxytocin

are hormones.

_______ regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and bones.

Parathyroid hormone

T3, T4, and calcitonin are

secreted by the thyroid gland

Which of the following is the response to low plasma levels of calcium?

secretion of PTH

What is the most likely effect of a deficiency of aldosterone?

low blood volume and hypotension

Oxytocin

is a neurohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the uterine muscle to contract, thereby assisting in labor

Myxedema is:

advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood

This gland secretes TSH, ACTH, Growth Hormone.

anterior pituitary gland

Which disorder is caused by an overactive adrenal gland?

Cushing's disease

A deficiency of insulin causes

hyperglycemia

Which of the following structures connects the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis?

portal capillaries

Identify: an excessive growth of hair in locations where hair growth in women is normally minimal.

hirsutism

Portal capillaries carry releasing hormones from the brain to the

anterior pituitary gland

Which of the following is least associated with the adrenal medulla?

sugar, salt, and sex

This gland secretes melatonin and is concerned with our biologic rhythms.

pineal gland

Iodine, Colloid, and Goiter refer to this gland.

thyroid

Insulin and glucagon

are secreted by the pancreas and are concerned with the regulation of blood glucose.

Cushing's disease is:

hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex

PTH

stimulates osteoclastic activity

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

are secreted by the neurohypophysis

Which of the following is least descriptive of the hypothalamus?

secretes ACTH, TSH, and gonadotropins

Lactogenic hormone

stimulates the mammary glands to make milk

Which of the following is not controlled by a hypothalamic-releasing hormone?

ADH

Excess secretion of epinephrine

elevates blood glucose

The islets of Langerhans

secrete insulin and glucagon

Which of the following steroids is an androgen?

testosterone

The islets of which endocrine gland regulate the levels of glucose in our blood?

Pancreatic gland

The adenohypophysis

refers to the anterior pituitary gland

Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone

are secreted by the gonads

Which of the following hormones are found within the hypophyseal hypothalamic portal capillaries?

releasing hormones

A disease that results in the enlargement of bones of the hands, feet, jaws, and cheeks is:

acromegaly

Which of the following is a function of parathyroid hormone?

It increases plasma levels of calcium

The adrenal Mudulla

is part of the "fight-or-flight" response

Growth hormone

is secreted by the adenohypophysis, is also called somatotropic hormone, stimulates growth of the musculoskeletal system

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

is called a goiter

Which endocrine gland requires iodine to produce its hormone?

Thyroid

Which of the following is most likely to cause the secretion of calcitonin?

elevated plasma calcium

Cretinism, Myxedema, and Graves' disease are all

disorders of thyroid gland function

Ketoacidosis is most related to

excess fatty acid catabolism

ACTH stimulates the

adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol

The only hormone that lowers blood glucose is

insulin

This gland is associated with "sugar, salt, and sex."

adrenal cortex

Acromegaly is characterized by:

hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland after puberty, adenomas of the pituitary gland during adulthood

Which one of the endocrine glands produces epinephrine and norepinephrine?

adrenal

Obesity

elevates blood glucose, antagonizes insulin, causes Na+ and water reabsorption, thereby increasing blood pressure.

The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland suppresses further secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland. What is this interaction called?

negative feedback control

Which of the following is most descriptive of cAMP?

second chemical messenger

Which of the following best characterizes the stratum germinativum?

mitotically active

What substance is produced by the skin and is necessary for the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract?

vitamin D

The meaning of the word 'intradermal" is:

"within the skin"

Redness of the skin is:

erythema

Who or what is covered with vernix caseosa?

a fetus

A person sweats and becomes flushed while exercising in order to

lose heat

The sabaceous, apocine, and eccrine glands are

exocrine glands

What is the result of the contraction of the arrector pili muscles?

goosebumps

When obtaining a wound culture, it is important not to:

irritate the wound by inserting the swab too deeply, use cotton swabs to collect the sample, remove too much exudate

Both the mammary glands and ceruminous glands

are modified sweat glands

Antipruritics would be useful in treating which of the following conditions?

Herpes zoster

Ceruminous glands

secrete wax in the outer ear

The stratum germinativum and the stratum corneum are layers of the

epidermis

Which word is most descriptive of sudoriferous?

sweat

Yellow-colored skin is:

jaundice

Freckles and moles are due to an accumulation of

melanin

Which of the following has the poorest prognosis?

melanoma

When educating patients about the care of their skin, it is best to:

emphasize preventative measures that help promote healthy skin

A raised lesion is called a:

papule

What is the color of skin that is supplied by oxygen-poor blood?

cyanotic

Hives are called

urticaria

Which of the following is associated with tanning?

melanocytes

Which action is most likely to lower body temperature?

vasodilation

The surgical repair of the nose is called:

rhinoplasty

A freckle is called a:

macule

If the blood vessels of the skin dilate, the person appears

flushed

Which is not an appropriate action to take when treating frostbite?

Gently rubbing the affected area

What is a major preventative action that patients can take to avoid malignant neoplasms?

Use lotions with a high SPF

Nonshivering thermogenesis is accomplished by

metabolism associated with brown fat.

The hypodermis

is also called the subcutaneous layer

Blueness of the skin is:

cyanosis

What is the name of the yellow pigment found in skin?

carotene

What is one of the principal functions of the subcutaneous layer of the skin?

It provides insulation for the body.

Which of the following occurs as a result of the secretion of fetal sebaceous glands?

The fetus is covered by vernix caseosa

What is the effect of shivering?

increases heat production

Which statement describes a major advantage of topical over systemic drugs?

Less likely to cause side effects

Which gland is most likely to develop a blackhead or pimple?

sebaceous

Which of the following is a consequence of a congenital absence of eccrine glands?

inability to regulate body temperature

What is the name of the sweat glands usually associated with hair follicles and found in the axillary and genital areas?

apocrine

Radiation, Conduction, Convection, and Evaporation are terms that are concerned with

heat loss

Which glands are most responsible for body odor?

apocrine

Which type of gland secretes vernix caseosa in the fetus?

sebaceous

The part of the integumentary system containing fat as a stored energy source is the:

subcutaneous layer

Which statement does not describe a result of a full-thickness burn?

Severe pain immediately after the injury

Which highly contagious disorder is caused by a parasite?

Scabies

Which of the following substances makes the skin water-resistant?

keratin

The word that means the "study of the skin" is:

dermatology

Which highly contagious disorder is caused by streptococci and characterized by itchy vesicles and pustules?

Impetigo

Which of the following lies upon the subcutaneous layer?

dermis

Which of the following structures is avascular?

epidermis

A bruise is also known as:

ecchymosis

What is the layer that insulates the body from extreme temperature changes in the external environment?

subcutaneous

Which type of lesion is a sign of a partial-thickness burn?

Bulla

What is the name of the thickening of the epidermis that develops in response to constant pressure or irritation?

callus

Itching is called:

pruritus

Anticancer drugs often cause hair loss, a condition called

alopecia

Which of the following is associated with the conservation of heat?

Blood vessels constrict

A blister is called a:

bulla

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