Chemistry Chapter 1

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Chemistry

the study of the composition and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes

Chemical

any substance that has a definite composition

Organic chemistry

the study of most carbon-containing compounds

Inorganic chemistry

the study of non-carbon related substances

Physical chemistry

the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy

Analytical Chemistry

the identification of the components and chemical composition of materials

Biochemistry

the study of the chemistry of living things

Theoretical chemistry

the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds

Basic research

research that is performed to gain knowledge

Applied research

research that is carried out to solve a particular problem

Technological development

research that typically involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life

Matter

anything that has mass or takes up space

Mass

a measure of the amount of matter in an object

Weight

the gravitational force exerted on an object

Volume

the amount of three-dimensional space an object occupies

Atom

the smallest unit of an element that maintains its chemical identity

Element

a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances

Compound

a substance that can be broken down into simpler stable substances

Molecule

the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all of the properties of that element or compound

Extensive properties

properties that depend on the amount of matter that is present

Intensive properties

properties that do not depend on the amountof matter present

Physical property

a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance

Chemical property

a characteristic relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances

Physical change

a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance

Chemical change

a change of one substance into a new substance

Chemical equation

a way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols

reactants

chemical substances you have at the beginning of a chemical reaction

products

chemical substances you have at the end ofa chemical reaction

Substance

matter that if broken down into smaller components, it no longer has the same properties

Mixture

when two or more substances are combined so that each substance keeps its own propertites

Element

a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom

Compound

a substance that cn be broken down into simpler stable structures and is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemicallt bonded

Heterogeneous mixture

a mixture that is not uniform throughout

Homogeneous mixture

a mixture that is uniform throughout

Solution

another name for a homogeneous mixture

Chemical symbol

represents the name of an element

Periodic table

a chart in which elements areorganized into groups based on similar chemicals properties

Groups or families

vertical columns in the periodic table

Periods

horizontal rows in the periodic table

Metals

elements on the left side and center of the periodic table that are malleale, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity

Nonmetals

elements on the right side of the periodic table that are brittle and are poor conductors of heat and electricity

Lanthanide and Actinide series

two sets of mtallic elements placed below the periodic table to keep the table from being to wide

Noble gases

Group 18 elements on the periodic table that are known for being unreactive.

Metalloids

elements that appear along the zigzag dividing line between metals and nonmetals and have properties between these two groups

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