Nomads of the Arabian penninsula with a cluture basedon hearding camels and goats.
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually possessed largre heards, several wives, and many children.
Arabian commercial center; dominated by the Quarysh; the home of Muhammad and the future center of Islam.
Town northeast of Mecca; asked Muhammad to resolve its intergroup differences. Muhammad's flight to Medina, the Hijra, in 622began the Muslim calendar.
Clan of the Quarysh that dominated Mecca; later an Islamic dynasty.
Revered pre-Islamic shrine in Mecca; incorporated into Muslim worship.
The word of God as revealed through Muhammad; made into the holy book of Islam.
Community of the faithful within Islam
Tax for charity obligatory for all Muslims.
The obligatory religious duties for all Muslims; profession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and haji (pilgrimage to Mecca).
The successor to Muhammad as head of the Islamic community.
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for the development of Shi'ism.
Succeded Muhammad as the first caliph.
Wars following Muhammad's death; the defeatof rical prophets and oppornents restored the unity of Islam.
Islamic holy war.
Third caliph; his assassination set off a civil war withing Islam between the Umayyads and Ali.
Battle of Siffin
Battle fought in 657 between Ali and the Umayyads; led to negotiations that fragmented Ali's party.
First Umayyad caliph; his capital was Damascus.
Followers of the majority interpretation
Followers of Ali't interpretation of Islam
Site of the defeat and death of Husayn, the song of Ali.
Non-Arab converts to Islam.
Head tax paid by all non-Muslims in Islamic lands.
"The people of the book," Jews, Christians; later extended to Zoroastrians and HIndus.
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750; their capital was Baghdad.
Chief administrative officical under the Abbasids.
The wealthy landed elite that emerged under the Abbasids.
Quraysh Bedouin tribe
The Umayyad clan of the bedouin tribe founded the city of Mecca.
Islamic term for God.
First wife of Muhammad who was the widow of a wealthy merchant.
Term used to describe Muhammad's flight to Medina; marks the first year of the Islamic calendar.
The ninth month of the Islamic year that requires daily fasting from sunrise to sunset
Pilgrimage to the holy ciry of Mecca; one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Ancient Islamic cultural center; capital of present-day Syria.
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad.
Battle of River Zab
Battle in 750 C.E. in which Abbasid forces met and defeated an army led by the Umayyad caliph near the Tigris Ricer; the Abbasid victory opened the way for the conquest of Syria and capture of the Umayyad capital.
Ancient Islamic cultural center on Tigris River; capital of present-day Iraq.
Ship with lateen sails and raised deck at the stern; used along the coasts of east Africa and the Middle East.
Islamic temple and place of worship.