Medical Coding/Billing Chapter 5

172 terms by JoyCorbitt 

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append/o

appendix

appendic/o

appendix,

bucc/o

cheek

cec/o

cecum

celi/o

belly, abdomen

cheil/o

lip

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

choledoch/o

common bile duct

col/o

colon, large intestine

colon/o

colon

dent/i

tooth

duoden/o

duodenum

enter/o

intestines, usually small intestine

esophag/o

esophagus

faci/o

face

gastr/o

stomach

gingiv/o

gums

gloss/o

tongue

hepat/o

liver

ile/o

ileum

jejun/o

jejunum

labi/o

lip

lapar/o

abdomen

lingu/o

tongue

mandibul/o

lower jaw, mandible

odont/o

tooth

or/o

mouth

palat/o

palate

pancreat/o

pancreas

peritone/o

peritoneum

pharyng/o

throat

proct/o

anus and rectum

pylor/o

pyloric sphincter

rect/o

rectum

sialaden/o

salivary gland

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

stomat/o

mouth

uvul/o

uvula

amyl/o

starch

bil/i

gall, bile

bilirubin/o

bilirubin (bile pigment)

chol/e

gall, bile

chlorhydr/o

hydrochloric acid

gluc/o

sugar

glyc/o

sugar

glycogen/o

glycogen, animal starch

lip/o

fat, lipid

lith/o

stone

prote/o

protein

sial/o

saliva, salivary

steat/o

fat

-ase

enzyme

-chezia

defecation, elimination of wastes

-iasis

abnormal condition

-prandial

meal

absorption

process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood

amino acids

building blocks of proteins

amylase

Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch

anus

opening through which wastes leave the digestive tract

appendix

A small pouch located where the small intestine joins the large intestine. It has no known use and sometimes can become infected and have to be removed.

bile

a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

bilirubin

pigment released by the liver in bile

bowel

intestine

canine teeth

Pointed, "dog tooth"-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.

cecum

First part of the large intestine (colon).

colon

the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum

common bile duct

The duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver to the small intestine (duodenum).

defecation

the elimination of fecal waste through the anus

deglutition

Swallowing

dentin

The primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.

digestion

The breaking down of food into nutrients the body can use

duodenum

first protion of the small intestine

elimination

Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials.

emulsification

Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.

enamel

hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth

enzyme

a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances

esophagus

Tube connecting the throat to the stomach

fatty acids

Substances produced when fats are digested

feces

Solid wastes; stools

gallbladder

Small sac under the liver; stores bile

glucose

A simple sugar.

glycogen

Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells

hydrochloric acid

substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food

ileum

Third part of the small intestine

incisor

one of four front teeth in the dental arch

insulin

hormone produced by endocrine cells of pancreas; transports sugar into cells from blood and stimulates glycogen formation by lvier

jejunum

second part of the small intestine

lipase

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

liver

large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach

mastication

chewing

molar teeth

Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.

palate

Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.

pancreas

organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes

papillae (singular: papailla)

small elevations on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple-like elevation

parotid gland

Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear

peristalsis

rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach

pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

portal vein

Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines

protease

Enzyme that digests protein

pulp

Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels

pyloric sphincter

Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum

pylorus

Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum

rectum

Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus

rugae

Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach

saliva

digestive juice produced by salivary glands

salivary glands

three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands

sigmoid colon

Fourth and last S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum

sphincter

circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening

stomach

large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food

triglycerides

Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol

uvula

Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate

villi (singular: villus)

Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.

absorption

passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream

amino acids

small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when jproteins are digested

amylase

enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch

anus

terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body

appendix

blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant (RLQ). It literally means hanging (pend/o) on to (ap-, which is a from of ad-).

bile

digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis, meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bitter taste. It is composed of bile pigments (colored materials), cholesterol, and bile salts.

bilirubin

pigment released by the liver in bile

bowel

intestine

canine teeth

Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth

cecum

first part of the large intestine

colon

large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum

common bile duct

carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus.

defecation

elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus

deglutition

swallowing

dentin

the primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root

digestion

breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms

duodenum

first part of the small intestine. duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long

elimination

act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces

emulsification

Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat

enamel

hard, outermost layer of a tooth

enzyme

a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase.

esophagus

tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing

fatty acids

substances produced when fats are digested

feces

solid wastes; stool

gallbladder

small sac under the liver; stores bile. Remember: gallbladder is one word!

glucose

simple sugar

glycogen

starch;glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells

hydrochloric acid

substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food

ileum

third part of the small instestine; from the greek eilos, meaning twisted. when the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of abstruction.

incisor

one of four front teeth in the dental arch

insulin

hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver

jejunum

second part of the small intestine. The latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death

lipase

pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

liver

a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. the liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs abour 21/2 to 3 pounds.

lower esphageal sphincter (LES)

ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter

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