Medical Assistant Cardiology (Kinn's)

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chordae tendineate

tendons that anchor the cusps of the heart valves to the papillary muscles of the myocardium, preventing valvular prolapse

intermittent claudication

recurring cramping in the calves

Marfan syndrome

inherited condition, elongation of bones, joint hypermobility, abnormalities of eyes, development of aortic aneurysm

heart

a pump that pushes blood through all the arteries, blood circulates oxygen and nutrients, picks up waste, hollow, muscular organ, size of a fist

pulmonary

pertaining to the lung (pulmonic); right ventricle to lungs to pulmonary veins to left atrium

heart, chambers

four: 2 atria, 2 ventricles

atria

receive blood

ventricles

pump blood

heart, type

muscular organ

heart, what

pump providing force needed to push blood through the arteries of the body

heart, why

circulates a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients and picks up metabolic waste

deoxygenated blood

goes through the pulmonary artery to lungs for oxygen sending blood back through pulmonary veins to left side of heart

heart's double membrane sac

pericardium

heart layers

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

heart conduction

electrical conduction system that stimulates contractions

heart conduction, route

SA node sends electrical impulses to AV, these are transmitted to bundle of HIS (conduction fibers) which divide, becoming smaller, ending with the Purkinje fibers

SA node

pacemaker of the heart

chordae tendineae

tendons, anchor cups of heart valves to papillary muscles of myocardium, prevents valvular prolapse

intermittent claudication

recurring cramping in calves caused by poor circulation

Marfan syndrome

genetic, elongated bones, joint hypermobility, abnormalities of eyes, development of aortic anerysom

scleroderma

autoimmune, affects blood vessels and connective tissue, fibrous degeneration of major organs

CHF

congestive heart failure, myocardium can't pump enough blood to meet body's needs

bruit

abnormal sound or murmur

depolarization

contraction of atria and ventricles

repolarization

recovery occurring after chambers contract

polarization

resting

atheroma

accumulation and swelling in artery walls that is made up of plaque and debri

myocardial ischemia

decrease of blood flow to the heart, angina symptom

thrombus

blood clot

embolus

floating blood coat

metabolic syndrome

risk factors include high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol, and insulin resistance

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium

endocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium

bifurcate

dividing into two branches, splits

pallor

lack of color

heart function

muscular pump that pushes body through the body

heart-three layers

endocardium, myocardium, epicardium

MI and Angina difference

MI greater than 30 mins. and not relieved by rest or nitro.; Angina is less than 30 mins. and is relieved by rest or nitro.

MI-to reduce risk

stop smoking, change to a low fat, low cholesterol diet, do regular exercise, reduce stress

CAD risk factors that can not be changed

age, gender, family history, race

CAD risk factors than can be changed

smoking, High blood cholesterol, High blood pressure, Physical inactivity, Obesity and overweight, Diabetes mellitus

MI symptom for women

aching in both arms and jaw pain

hypertensive heart disease

chronic high blood pressure causing an enlargement of the left ventricle

primary hypertension

idiopathic

secondary hypertension

cause by a disease located in another body system

white coat hypertension

high blood pressure caused by anxiety over being at the healthcare facility

CHF symptoms

dypsnea, orthopnea, nonproductive cough, rales, tachycardia

CHF patient education

watch for weight gain, could be fluid retention

orthostatic hypotension

drop in blood pressure when changing positions, i.e. sitting to standing

valve disease-2 problems with

stenosis and incompetence (insufficiency)

MVP

mitral valve prolapse (a)

mitral valve prolapse (b)

incompetence in the mitral valve that leads to prolapse (congenital or scarring)

pulmonary system

carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs and back

systemic system

carries oxygenated blood to body tissues from left ventricle through the body back through the right atrium

arteries-function

carry oxygenated blood away from the heart

capillaries-function

exchange nutrients and gases

vein-function

carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart

shock

collapse of the circulatory system

varicose veins-cause

defective valves

signs of shock

thirstiness, restlessness, irritability

DVT

deep vein thrombosis (a)

deep vein thrombosis (b)

blood clot in a deep vein, leading to inflamed vein

DVT risk factors

surgery, old age, trauma, obesity, oral contraceptives, pregnancy

pulmonary embolism

DVT in the lungs

arteriosclerosis

thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls

atherosclerosis

arteriosclerosis with an atheroma

cholesterol produced by

liver

arteriosclerosis treatment

diet changes, aerobic exercise, smoking cessation

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