World History Chapter 2 vocab words

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10th grade regular world history, chapter 2 early history

Mesopotamia

land between Tigris and Euphraties

Sumerians

created Mesopatamian civilizations, People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.

Uruk

independant city-state in Southern Meopatamia, an ancient Sumerian city in Southern Iraq, near the Euphrates, important before 2000 b.c. : exclusive archaeological excavations, notably of a ziggurat and of tablets with very early Sumerian script.

fertile crescent

Med sea to persian gulf

city states

land unit for Sumerian civilizations

ziggurat

a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians

theocracy

the belief in government by divine guidance

sargon

warrior who found the Akkadian Empire and so became the first ruler of an empire in the Fertile Crescent

empire

many territories and peoples controlled by one government

babylon

the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capitol of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia

hammurabi

Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

code of hammurabi

the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety

patriarchal

male-dominated

polytheistic

worshipping or believing in more than one god

cuneiform

an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia

nile

the world's longest river (4180 miles)

lower egypt

The northern part of ancient Egypt

upper egypt

the southern part of ancient Egypt

menes

king of upper Egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt

dynasty

a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

pharoah

Egyptian ruler who was believed to be the son of Re, the sun god, in human form. He had total authority over people and land.

bureacracy

a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials

mummification

embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy

giza

an ancient Egyptian city on the west bank of the Nile opposite Cairo

hysoks

group of Western Asians

hatshepsut

First female pharaoh

Akhenation

monotheistic pharaoh

king tut

A young king whose tomb was filled with jewelry, robes, burial masks, and ivory statues. These findings have helped people learn about Egypt's past

rames ii

the strongest of the pharaohs at his time, ruled from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.

cleopatra

beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt

heiroglyphics

ancient Egyptian writing system using picture symbols for ideas or sounds

hieratic

a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphics

pastoral nomad

Groups of herders who move with their animals from place to place in search of pasture and water

indo-europeans

earliest versions of greeks, brought Gods, Zeus, warriors

monotheistic

believing that there is only one god

assyrians

known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire

nebuchadnezzar

(Old Testament) king of Chaldea who captured and destroyed Jerusalem and exiled the Israelites to Babylonia (630?-562 BC)

satrapies

the 20 states into which Darius divided the Persian Empire

satrap

a governor of a province in ancient Persia

royal road

a road in the persian empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from susa in persia to sardis in anatolia

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