What prevented England from settling America as fast as the Spanish?
King Henry VIII broke with the Roman church in the 1530's which launched the Protestant Reformation and caused religious turmoil until Queen Elizabeth came on the throne
and promoted exploration and colonization
What was the effect of Queen Elizabeth's protestant rule?
the relationship with Spain was strained because Spain was Catholic and Spain also tried to help the Catholic Irish rise up against the throne
Sir Francis Drake
"sea dog", basically a pirate, looted Spanish ships and was dubbed a knight by Queen Elizabeth who supported his actions
Where was England's first attempt at colonization?
Newfoundland, led by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, but he lost his life at sea in 1583
Who was Sir Walter Raleigh?
He was inspired by his deceased brother Humphrey Gilbert to try and settle Roanoke Island (VA), but this settlement mysteriously disappeared
Spain's leader during the Spanish Armada and expanded the Spanish Empire
What impact did the English defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 have?
It ended the expansion of the Spanish Empire and established England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic
When did England and Spain sign a peace treaty?
What caused the English to want to leave?
huge population growth (3 million in 1550 to 4 million in 1600), enclosure was kicking a lot of farmers off their land for sheep grazing leading the farmers to move to the city and become beggars, laws of primogeniture and joint stock companies
Laws of Primogeniture
(1600's) decreed that only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates from their fathers
joint stock companies
(1600's) enabled investors to pool their capital making it possible for many people to settle when before they wouldn't have had the financial status to
Charter of the Virginia Company
(1606) James I wanted a settlement in Jamestown because he wanted gold- the charter guaranteed settlers the same rights as englishmen (1607)- arrived in "Jamestown" with a hundred men
Founding of Jamestown
men were too interested in finding gold to gather provision so they died from starvation and malnutrition
Captain John Smith
1608- took over Jamestown and, under strict rule, he whipped the colonists into line, formed relationship with pocahontas who provided them with foodstuffs and peace
Lord de La Warr
met the colonists trying to go back to the mainland and made them go back and imposed a harsh military regime and undertook aggressive military action against the Indians
dominated all indian tribes before the English came and had a rule over several smalll tribes called the Powhatan Confederacy, tried to be allies with the english in his quest to take over
First Anglo- Powhatan War
1610- led by de La Warr, it was resolved by a peace settlement which involved the marriage of John Rolfe to Pocohontas (1614)
1644- started by the indians attacks which left 347 settlers dead, this caused the VA CO to call total war on the indians, indians started the war in one last attempt to dislodge the settlers, again they failed
What disease did the indians contract from the settlers?
small pox mainly and also measles
indian tribe who lived in the Great Lakes area, absorbed other tribes to build up a force to stand against the english and spanish who passes through
father of the tobacco industry (VA), perfected methods of raising and curing it that got rid of most of the bitter tang (tobacco ruined the soil though so the need for land was great)
What crop did VA make their living from?
When and where was the first slave trade made?
House of Burgesses
took place in Virginia and it was the first representative self gov, James I didn't like this and so he withdrew the charter and made VA a royal colony directly under his rule
Foundation of Maryland
(1634) founded by Lord Baltimore (Baltimore, Maryland), created it for financial profit and wanted it to be a homeland for Catholics (this failed horribly)
Act of Toleration
1649- guaranteed toleration to all christians.. no jews or atheists, first as of religious toleration in the colonies
penniless persons who bound themselves to woerk for a numbed of years to pay for their passage
Spain weakened by military overextension so England could come and take the Indies for themselves; sugar production
Barbados Slave Code
Established in 1661, it gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions. brought to the Carolinas in the 1670's
Founding the Carolinas
proprietary colonies; Charles II named it after hiself in 1670 and gave it to 8 of his favorite of the Lords Proprietors; hoped it would be a huge producer but ended up being an outpost and a slave trading colony to their dismay
What was the principle crop in the Carolinas?
What was the busiest sea port in the south in the early 18th century?
Charles town (Charleston had a very diverse culure)
(1700's) Spainards in Florida didn't like the protestant infested Carolinas being so close to the border so they got the indians on their side and unsuccessfully tried to wipe them out
Emergence of North Carolina
bordered on VA so dissenters and poor people came down from VA into nothern VA and became "squatters" and it officially became its own colony in 1712, one of the most independent of the thirteen colonies
settlers without legal right to the soil they are occupying
indians fell on the settlement of New Bern in 1711 and the Carolinians joined together and crushed them selling the survivors into slavery
1715- the tribe that the South Carolinians defeated and diispersed
Appalachian Mountain Indian Tribes
Iroquis, Chherokees, and the Creeks survived forhalf a century past their other coastal tribe neighbors because of there power in numbers
Founding of Georgia
created in 1733 by the English crown (Named after King George II) to serve as a buffer between the Carolinas and the Spaniards, the only one of the original thirteen colonies to recieve subsidies from the crown, haven for wretched souls imprisoned with debt also produced silk and wine
helped found Georgia, saved the "charity colony" with his energetic leadership and by heavily mortgaging his own fortune
served as Georgias melting pot ( Lutherans, scots) and everyone enjoyed religious toleration except for Catholics, John Wesley traveled here (later founded the Methodist church)
Characteristics of the Plantation Colonies
all devpted to some sort of commercial agriculture products (mostly rice and tobacco), slavery could be found in all of the colonies (not in Georgia til 1750), aristocratic atmosphere (except parts of Georgia and Northcarolina), all provided some sort of religious toleration (main religion was the tax supported Church of England)
started the Protestant revolution by stating that the authority of religion was in the Bible not in the priests (sola scriptura) `
credo for Puritans and other (French Huguenots, Scottish Presbyterians and of the Dutch Reformed Chuch), god = all powerful and all good, humans = weak and wicked,
the idea that God had already picked who was going to heaven and hell; called the "elect"
the "elect" had an experience with God where he would tell them they were going to heaven; after this the "elect" were expected to live the lives of "visible saints"
King Henry VIII by broke wiht the Roman Catholic and headed his own religion, the Church of England, these people believed english christianity needed to be
"purified" (most came from the woolen districts)
believed that only the most devote believers should be able to be part of the church, James I saw these religious dissenters as a threat to his power so he made them leave
Journey to Plymouth
devote group of seperatists who had moved to Holland didnt like that their children werent growing up english so they decided to move to America, missed its destination by a lot so technically they were squatters
simple agreement to a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority (2/5 of the men were allowed to participate which was more than in England)
chosen leader of the plymouth colony 30 years in a row, didn't want other settlers coming and disturbing his puritan community
helped Charles I carry out his anti-puritan persecutions