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Chapter 2&4&5&6&7&8&9&10

chemical element

a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom

chemical compound

a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions

ion

a positively or negatively charged atom

molecule

smallest unit of most compounds.

van derr wall forces

when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can form from the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. this attraction

cohesion

an attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

attraction between molecules of diff substances

mixture

a material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined

solution

all components are evenly dispersed & dissolved

suspension

mixtures of water and nondissolved materials

acid

any compound that forms H+ ions in solution

base

any compound that forms OH- ions in solution

covalent bond

formed when e- are shared between atoms. when atoms share 2 electrons-single bond 4electrons-double bond

ionic bond

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

polymerization

a process in which large compounds, (polymers or macromoleucules) are built by joining smaller ones (monomers) together

monomers

they join together to form polymers. these small compounds may be identical or different

polymers

the result of monomers joining together in polymerization

monosacchrides

single sugar molecules

polysacchrides

the large macromolecules from from monosacchrides

chemical reaction

a process that changes 1 set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

reactants

the elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction

products

the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

activation energy

energy required to get a reaction started

catalysts

a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering a reaction's activation energy

enzymes

proteins that act as biological catalysts in cells

substrates

the reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

greenhouse gases

carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, & a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy & maintain Earth's temp range

upwelling

cold water near poles sinks and flows parallel to the ocean's bottom, then rising again in warmer regions

biotic factors

the biological influence on organimsm within an ecosystem. the entire biological community-birds, trees, mushrooms

abiotic factors

physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems- climate, humidity, nutrient availability, soil type, wind, sunlight

niche

the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions

ecological resource

any necessity of life, water, nutrients, light, space

ecological succession

as an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out, and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community

greenhouse affect

natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases.

climate

the average, year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. scientists average info for 30 years

weather

the day to day condition of earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

competitive exclusion principle

no 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

predation

an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism

predator

when predation occurs, the organism that does the killing and eating

prey

when predation occurs, the organism that is the food

symbiosis

any relationship in which 2 species live closely together

primary succession

on land, a succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists.

microclimate

the climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate surrounding it

benthos

organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of the ocean

estuary

wetlands formed where rives meet the ocean; the mouth of river/stream meets the ocean.

geographic distribution

area inhabited by a population

population density

# of individduals per unit area

immigration

movement of individuals into an area

emmigration

movement of individuals out of an area

carrying capacity

largest # of individuals that a given enviroment can support

limiting factor

factor that causes population growth to decrease

demography

the scientific study of human population

renewable resource

resource that can regenerate and are therefore replaceable

nonrenewable resources

a resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes

deforestation

loss of forests

soil erosion

the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind

desertification

a process of turning once productive areas into deserts

biodiversity

the sum total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere

endangered species

a specie who's population is declining in a way that places it in danger

cell membrane

a thin flexible barrier around the cell

cell wall

a strong layer around the cell membrane

nucleus

a large structure that contains the genetic materials & controls most of cell's processes

cytoplasm

the material inside the cell membrane excluding the nucleus

tissue

a group of similia cells that perform aparticular function

organ

many groups of tissues working together

organ system

a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

mitochondrion

uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds

golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins

chloroplast

uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food

endoplasmic reticulum

an internal membrane system in which componets of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed

ribosome

small particle of rna andprotein that produces protein following instructions from nucleus

vacuole

saclike structure that stores materials

lysosome

filled with enzymes used to break down food into particles that can be used

pigment

light-absorbing molecules

chlorophyll

a plant's principle pigment

thylakoids

saclike photosynthetic membrane

grana

stack of thylakoids

stroma

the space outside the thylakoid membranes

light-dependent reactions

produce oxygen gas and convert ADP & NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP&NADPH

calvin cycle

uses ATP & NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars

calorie

the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 celsius degree

cellular respiration

the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen

gylcolysis

the process in which 1 molecul of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid , a 3-carboncompound

fermentation

releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen

anaerobic

not in air

aerobic

in air

mutualism

both species benfit from relationship

commensalism

one member of relationship benefits, and the other isn't helped or harmed

parasitism

one organism lives on or inside another organism & harms it

krebs cycle

pyruvic acid from glycolysis is used to make carbon dioxied, NADH, ATP, and FADH2

electron transport chain

uses high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP

chromatid

one pair of identitical chromosomes created by chromosome replication prior to cell division.

centromere

the area where cromosomes are attatched

mitosis

the division of the cell nucleus & cytokinis takes place

centrioles

two tiny structures located in cytoplasam near nuclear envelop

spindle

fanlike microtubule structure that helps spereate chromosomes

cytokinesis

the division of the cytoplasm itself

cancer

a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth

cyclin

regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

internal regulators

proteins that respond to events inside the cell

growth factors

proteins that respond to events outside the cell

saturated

each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond

unsaturated

there is at least 1 carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid

polyunsaturated

a lipid's fatty acids contain more than one double bond

enzyme-substrate complex

formed when an enzyme and a substrate bind together

ecological pyramid

a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web

limiting nutrient

when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient thats scarce or cycles very slowly, what is that nutrient called?

polar zone

cold areas around north&south poles 60-90

temperate zone

ranges from hot to cold depending on season, between the polar zones & the tropics. 30-60

tropics zone

almost always warm areas near the equator 30N&30S

secondary succession

when a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what follows?

tradgedy of the commons

the notion that any resource thats open to everyone, like air, or part of the ocean will eventually be destroyed because everyone can use it, but no one is held responsible for preserving it

bioacculmulation

the accumulation of pollutants in the tissues of individual organism

biological magnification

the increasing concentration of a harmful substance increase in organisms @ a high trophic level in a food chain or web

microtubule

hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in length that maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for organelles, form centrioles in cell division

microfilaments

long, thin fibers 7 nanometers in diameter that support the cell, moves organelles within the cell

lipid bilayer

the double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes

selectively permeable

some substances can pass across them& others can't

osmosis

the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

active transport

the energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration

ATP

one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store energy

carrier molecule

a compound that can accept a pair of high energy e- & transfer them along with their energy to another molecule

NADPH, ATP, & oxygen

the products of light dependent reactions

prophase

chromatin condense into chromosomes, centrioles seperate & a spindle begins to form. nuclear membrane breaks down.

metaphase

chromosome line up across the center of cell. each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber @ its centromere

anaphase

sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart

telophase

chromosomes gather @ opposite ends of the cell& lose their distinct shape. 2 new nuclear membranes form

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