Surgical Technology ch 23 peripheral vascular surgery

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the external covering of an organ or other structure, derived from connective tissue, especially the external covering of a blood vessel.


the act of splitting into two branches


smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products between the blood and tissue fluid in capillary beds


to limp; pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply


pertaining to the opposite side


relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle


an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood

fogarty catheter

catheter, small in diameter and is balloon-tipped, used to facilitate the removal of an embolus

in situ

in the original or natural place or site


not named or classified


decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ


innermost layer of a blood vessel, endothelial lining of the vessel along with underlying layer of connective tissue containing variable amounts of elastic fibers.


To make less severe


illness or disease


related to death


closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel)


Vasodilator relaxes smooth muscle in arterial wall stops vasospasm


the state of being open


pertaining to the diaphragm


small square of Teflon sutured over a hole in a vessel, it exerts external pressure over any small needle holes to prevent bleeding and to promote clotting


determining the change in volume of an organ or part; used in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis


dilated channel for venous blood


a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin


flap of connective tissue between an atrium and a ventricle, or in a vein, that prevents backflow of blood

tunica interma

Inner most layer, Simple Squamous Epithelium

tunica media

middle layer of artery; made up of smooth muscle fibers and thick layer of elastic connective tissue

tunica externa

outermost layer, connective tissue, tough collagen fibers, protects the blood vessels, thickest layer in veins

external carotid artery

the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the face and tongue and external parts of the head

internal carotid artery

the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain and eyes and internal parts of the head


open;increase blood flow brings heat close to the body.


is the decrease in the diameter of a vessel

blood pressure

measurement of the force exerted by the heart against the arterial walls when the heart contracts and relaxes

3 factors that affect arterial blood pressure

pumping action of the heart; blood volume; resistance to flow/thickness of the blood

types of emboli

thromboemboli (95%)fat (post femur fx)air (IV cath insertion)amniotic fluid
Ca mets septic emboli (endocarditis)foreign body (additives in IV drugs)

treatment for embolism

enzymatic lysis; anticoagulants Heparin; surgery


type of true aneurysms that are circumfenetial: spindle shaped, thick in the middle and tapers at ends

cause of TIA


inflammation of a vein



deposits of cholesterol, calcium, and fat that build up on artery walls and can lead to cardiovascular disease

symptoms of TIA

contralateral hand/arm weakness or sensory loss, face and leg symptoms. Ocularly, can have ipsilateral visual symptoms (amaurosis fugax) or aphasia

intraluminal stent

placed in a vessel after angioplasty to maintain patancy. (palmaz stent) made of stainless steel mesh, titanium, or poly propylene

Arterial blood refers to

blood that is transported AWAY from the heart to the tissues of the body

veins are equipped with

valves that close if blood begins to back up

arterial blood pressure is dependent on

blood volume

Ventricular contraction

Systolic blood pressure is recorded during what?

Stroke volume is correlated with the force of ____________ _____________.

Ventricular contraction

stroke volume

the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each contraction

blood will not circulate

without a pressure gradient between the arterial and venous system

arterial blood pressure is dependent on

blood volume; ventricular contraction; resistance; viscosity/thickness; heart rate

directly affects resistance


central venous pressure (CVP)

Venous blood pressure within the right atrium


largest artery in the body

right and left coronary arteries

directly supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood

begins at the ascending aorta


three major arteries arise from the aortic arch

brachial sephalic; left common carotid; left subclavian

brachial sephalic or innominate artery

supplies the arm and head

bifurcates into the right subclavian and right carotid

brachial sephalic

supplies the right arm

right subclavian

supplies brain and right side of head and neck

right carotid

supplies brain and left side of head and neck

left common carotid

supplies left arm

left subclavian

abdominal aorta

branches to supply the abdominal wall and abdominal viscera

celiac artery

an artery that originates from the abdominal aorta just below the diaphragm and branches into the gastric artery the common hepatic artery and the splenic artery

splenic artery

largest and most obvious branch of the celiac artery, leads to the spleen.

3 main branches of splenic artery

left gastroepiploic; pancreatic; polar

left gastroepiploic artery

supplies lesser curvature of the stomach and esophagus

pancreatic artery

a branch of the splenic artery that supplies the pancreas

polar artery

supplies the spleen

common hepatic artery

artery which runs superiorly and branches off to hepatic artery proper; gastroduodinal; right gastric

hepatic artery proper

Superior to liver; divides into the right and left hepatic arteries supplies the liver and gall bladder

gastroduodinal artery

supplies the stomach, body of pancreas and duodenum

gastric artery

Division of coeliac artery that delivers blood to stomach

super renal artery

supplies the adrenal gland

renal gland

supply the kidneys and a small portion of the adrenal gland

lumbar arteries

supply the spinal cord and its meninges as well as the skin and muscles of the lumbar region of the back

the abdominal aorta bifurcates into the left and right

common iliac arteries at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra

common iliac arteries

divides inferiorly into 2 main branches right and left: internal iliac and external iliac

right and left iliac arteries become

the femoral arteries as they exit the pelvis and cross the inguinal ligament

upper extremity arterial blood begins at

the aortic arch where the left subclavian artery originates

right subclavian artery branches from

the brachiocephalic artery and becomes the axillary arteries as it enters the axillary region

common carotid bifurcates into

external carotid and internal carotid

external carotid

supplies structures in the neck and head area external to the skull

internal carotid

supply blood to the brain

circle willis

A structure at the base of the brain that is formed by the joining of the carotid and basilar arteries.

the majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms begin

below the renal arteries

arteriovenous (AV) fistula is preferred over an external shunt for long term dialysis because of a decreased chance of


fatty deposits on the walls of arteries are called


the rupturing of erythrocytes is called


the self retianing retractor used during femoral popliteal bypass is


a diagnostic test that examines blood flow and metabolic functions of the heart and brain is

positron emission tomography

what procedure is performed for chronic cerebral ischemia

carotid endarterectomy

the movement of blood through a vessel can be assessed by

doppler device

the agent used to flush an artery to prevent clotting is


a vascular clamp used for occluding peripheral vessels is


the instrument commonly used to clamp the aorta during an abdominal aneurysmectomy is


the instrument commonly used to remove plaque from the carotid during an endarterectomy is a/an

freer elevator

which synthetic material used for grafts requires preclotting?

Dacron knit polyester

the commonly used suze of suture for peripheral vasculat anastomosis of the popliteal artery is


the scissors commonly used to extend the arteriotomy during an endarterectomy is a/an


right and left internal jugular vein

drains the brain and the menninges as well as the deep regions of the face and neck

cephalic and basilica veins

drains the superficial tissues of the upper extremeties

basilica vein merges with the

brachial vein just below the head of the humerus to form the axillary vein

intercostals and subcostal veins

drains the muscles of the thoracic wall

inferior vena cava DOES NOT drain the veins of the

spleen, pancreas, gastrointiestinal tract, or gallbladder

hepatic portal vein

drains the spleen, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, or gallbladder

nutrients from digestion are filtered through the

liver cells

anterior and posterior tibial veins

drains from the deep veins of the foot

lower extremities divide into 2 groups the:

superficial and deep

greatest saphenous vein

longest vein in the body

the primary indicator of occlusive vascular disease


the 4 p's of complete occlusion of a large normal artery due to an embolism

painful, parasethic, pale, pulseless

arterial embolism may consist of

blood clot, piece of fat, air

major emboli lodge at

bifurcations, origin of large branches, sites of pathologic narrowing

nonoperative therapy for unstable patients

high doses of anticoagulant and enzymatic lysis

arterial embolectomy

balloon tipped fogarty catheter with heparinized saline

arteriosclerosis obliterans

generalized disease affecting the arterial system and involves the fromation of atheroma within the lumen of an artery that restricts blood flow to target tissue

urokinase and streptokinase

types of enzymatic lysis

recommended treatment of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta

resection with synthetic graft placement

balloon dilation of the peripheral artery is an option for patients with

artherosclerotic disease known as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

most common approach for peripheral vessel angioplasty is through

the ipsilateral femoral artery

may be placed within the vessel after balloon angioplasty to maintain patency of the repair

intraluminal stents

stents may be made of

stainless steel mesh, titanium, polypropylene, other inert materials

two basic reconstructive procedures utilized

bypass grafting and endarterectomy

synthetic grafts made of

knitted polyester, knitted velour (Dacron), Woven polyester (Dacron), polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE)

can be taken across the knee joint without kinking

Polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE)

the only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is the

pulmonary artery

the pacemaker of the heart is the

SA node

which arteries are formed by the bifuracation of the abdominal aorta?


the process by which blood cells are formed is known as


which of the following arises from the left ventricle


the pancreas lies behind the sotmach and duodenum in the right and left upper quadrants and is divided into _________protions


which organ is responsible for the synthesis of many of the coagulation factors


the atrioventricular (AV) valve between teh left atrium and the left ventricle is the


the inner layer of an artery is known as the


which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle

pulmonary artery

which of the following vessels do not empty into the right atrium

pulmonary veirns

the large artery found behind the knee is the


the large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch and descends into the arm is the


knitted polyester (Dacron) requires_____________to keep blood from seeping through


knitted polyester (Dacron) functions well above the

but may kink across the knee joint

knitted polyester (Dacron) is _______________for rapid tissue growth


intraoperative monitoring uses an Art line in the ___________

radial artery

swan ganz measures


self retaining retractor of choice for superficial peripheral vascular procedures


Dietrich coronary set includes____________________

vascular dilators;bulldogs;CV forceps;potts coronary scissors;vascualr clamps

are used for most anastomosis

castroviejo needle holder and Debakey forceps

suture boots to tag suture

rubber shods

retract blood vessels

vessel loops or Dacron tape


reinforce anastomosis

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