What are the sub types of influenza type A
Influenza is isolated from....
Influenza type A is associated with...
Widespread epidemics and pandemics
Influenza type B is infrequently associated with....
regional and widespread epidemics
What is Antigenic DRIFT inregaurds to Influenza
Minor or gradual changes in HA and NA,
A and B strains
Requires annual reformulation of the influenza vaccine
What is Antigenic SHIFT inregaurds to Influenza
Complete or major change in H and N,
anitgenically appears as new organism not recognized by the host
Major shifts associated with pandemics
Only influenza A
Influenza has a high morbidity rate but a low
What is a mode of transmisson of influenza
Droplets via the respiratory system and or direct contact with infected fomites
When it comes to Influenza all humans are susceptible when....
a new subtype appears
What are some preventive measures inregaurds to Influenza
What are some control of patient methods for influenza
report to local health authority
What are some signs and symptoms of Meningococcal Meningitis
What is the infectious agent of Meningococcal Meningitis
How do you diagnose Meningitis
Recovery of meningococi from CSF or blood
What must be done immediately even before lab results return in regaurds to Meningitis
Can be treated with Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin
Where do Meningococcal infections occur
Greatest incidence occurs during winter and spring
What are the common groups of Meningococcal meningitis in the U.S.
B,C, and Y
What is the incubation period of Meningitis
3 to 4 days
Meningococci usually disappear from the nasopharynx within..
24 hours after treatment
What are signs and symptoms of Streptococcal infections
Tender, enlarged cervical lymph nodes
May be accompanied by otis media
Scarlet fever occurs when the infecting strain of streptococcus produces a...
pyrogenic exotoxin; in which the patient is sensitized but not immune to the toxin
What does the rash that accompanines sore throat in scarlet fever feel like.
What is the infectious agent of Streptococcal Diseases
What is the treatment of choice for strept infections
Benzathine Penicillin G- IM
What is the incubation period for strept
1 to 3 days
Passive immunity to strept A disease may occur in..
What are some early signs and symptoms Tuberculosis
Night sweats and weight loss
What are some advanced signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis
Hemoptysis, hoarsness, and chest pain
What is the infectious agent of Tuberculosis
Presumptive diagnosis of active disease Tuberculosis is made by the demonstration of acid- fast bacilli in stainded smears from...
sputum and other body fluids
Ciguatera fish poisoning causes..
Diarrhea,Temp reversal(hot feels cold cold feels hot)
In ciguatera fish poisoning the bigger the fish
The more potent the toxin
Diagnosis of ciguatera is confirmed by
demonstrating the ciguatixin in implicated fish
Scombroid fish poisoning (histamine posion) causes
Tingling and burning sensation around the mouth and rash
Preventive measures for Scombroid fish poisioning
Adequate refrigeration and irradation to prevent spoilage
Organophosh insecticides signs and symptoms include
chest pain cyanosis, confusion, twitching and convulsions
Cooking materials contaminated with toxic metals cause
Vomitting, nausea, paresis of facial muscles, pain in throat
Bacterial pathogens account for over..
20 % of know disease outbreaks in the U.S.
What is the most common form of Botulism in the US
What is the infectious agent of botulism
Clostridium botulinum toxins
What is the temperature requriement for inactivation of spores in botulism
240 degrees farenheit
What is the treatment for botulism
IV administration of 1 vial polyvalent (AB or ABE) as soon as possible
Where does botulism occur
More common where home canning is popular
What is a reservoir for botulism
soil, marine sediment, intestinal tracts of animals and fish, and honey
Incubation period for botulism
Avg: 12-36 hrs, the shorter the incubation period the more severe the disease
In intestinal botulism, toxins are found for weeks to months in...
What is the infectious agent of Campylobacter Enteritis
What is the treatment for Campylobacter Enteritis
What is the most common bacterial food bourne illness in the US
Campylobacter Enteritis or Campylobacter jejuni
What are some reservoirs for campylobacter enteritis
Cattlle, and puppies or kittens
What is the infectious agent of Clostridium perfringens food bourne intoxications
C. perfringens and C. welchii and Type C strains
What strains of Clostriudm perfringens cause necrotizing enteritis
Almost all outbreaks of clostridium perfringens outbreaks are associated with inadquately heated/reheated
Meats,stews,meat pies and gravy
For clostridium perfringens, their is no resistance after..
Method of control for Clostridium perfringens is to
Heat all foods to atleast 165 degrees farenheit
What is the infectious agent of Staphylococcus intoxication
Several enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and can also be stable at boiling temperatures
What is a reservoir for Staph
humans and about 25% of people are carriers
What is a mode of transmission for staph
Associated conditions of infected cut, boils, acne, and or URI
What is a method of control for staph
Keep hot food above 140 degress and cold food cold food below 41 degrees
Where does salmonellosis mostly occur
Incidnence rates are highest in small children
What is a reservoir for Salmonellosis
Turtles, chicks, dog, cats
What are some signs and symptoms of Shigellosis
Stools may contain blood, mucus and pus or a watery diarrhea
What are contraindicated and may prolong illness of Shigellosis
Shigellosis peak during what time of year
In Shigellosis, carrier state may persist for...
months or longer
What is the infectious agent for Typhoid fever
What is an important vector when it comes to mode of transmission of Typhpoid
What is the range and average incubation period for Typhoid
Range is 3-30days average is 8-14 days
What are some signs and symptoms of cholera
Rapid dehydration, Acidosis, depletion of alkaline reserves of the body creating an acid pH in the body tissues and ciruclatory collapse
What is the average incubation period of Cholera
What is the infectious agent of Vibrio Parahemolyticus Enteritis
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (halophilic vibrio) which requires high levels of slat to produce optimal growth
What are reservoirs for V. Parahemolyticus Enteritis
Cold season: marine silt
Warm season: Coastal waters, fish, and shellfish
Vibrio Parahemolyticus Enteritis is non-communicable from..
person to person
What is the most dangerous infectious agent of E. coli
Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) serotype 0157:H7
shiga toxin which may reslut in hemolytic uremic syndrome
Food and child care workers with E.coli must provide 2 successive negative fecal samples greater than ...
48 hrs after antibiotic therapy
Which Influenza Types are isolated only from humans
Influenza type B and C
Which Influenza is associated with sporadic cases and minor localized outbreaks
Influenza type C
What are the Reservoirs for Influenza
Mainly humans swine, and avian species
Influenza's period of communicability is...
3-5 days from clincial onset
What are the seriological sub groups of Menigococcal Meningitis
A,B,C,X,Y,Z and W-135
Menningitis is transfered via....
Direct conatct, respiratory droplets from nose and throat especially in crowded conditions
When does strept throat usually peak?
Late winter and early spring
Confirmatory diagnosis of Tuberculosis is done by...
Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on culture
What are reservoirs for Tuberculosis
Primarily humans and cattle (Bovine TB)
Which kind of Tuberculosis is generally not communicable?
Which kind of Tuberculosis is highly contagious
How is Tuberculosis transmitted
Exposure to bacilli in airborne droplet nuclei by:
What is a preventive measure for Tuberculosis
Skin testing progams by the Mantoux method
A sign and symptom of Diptheria is characterized by a lesion marked by a patch or patches of
Adherent grayish membrane with surrounding inflammation
Enlarged tender cervical lymph nodes and edema in the neck is a sign and symptom of...