Respiratory Diseases/ Food borne and Water borne diseases

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Navy PMT Epi Test

What are the sub types of influenza type A

H1N1
H2N2
H3N

Influenza is isolated from....

Humans
Horses
Swine
Birds

Influenza type A is associated with...

Widespread epidemics and pandemics

Influenza type B is infrequently associated with....

regional and widespread epidemics

What is Antigenic DRIFT inregaurds to Influenza

Minor or gradual changes in HA and NA,
A and B strains
Requires annual reformulation of the influenza vaccine

What is Antigenic SHIFT inregaurds to Influenza

Complete or major change in H and N,

anitgenically appears as new organism not recognized by the host

Major shifts associated with pandemics

Only influenza A

Influenza has a high morbidity rate but a low

Mortalitiy rate

What is a mode of transmisson of influenza

Droplets via the respiratory system and or direct contact with infected fomites

When it comes to Influenza all humans are susceptible when....

a new subtype appears

What are some preventive measures inregaurds to Influenza

Education
Immunization
Amantadine/Rimantadine HCL

What are some control of patient methods for influenza

Isolation
report to local health authority
Amantadine/Rimantadine

What are some signs and symptoms of Meningococcal Meningitis

Fever
Intense headache
Vomitting
Stiff neck
Petechial rash
Delirium coma

What is the infectious agent of Meningococcal Meningitis

Nesseria meningitides

How do you diagnose Meningitis

Recovery of meningococi from CSF or blood

What must be done immediately even before lab results return in regaurds to Meningitis

Treatment
Can be treated with Penicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin

Where do Meningococcal infections occur

Greatest incidence occurs during winter and spring

What are the common groups of Meningococcal meningitis in the U.S.

B,C, and Y

What is the incubation period of Meningitis

3 to 4 days

Meningococci usually disappear from the nasopharynx within..

24 hours after treatment

What are signs and symptoms of Streptococcal infections

Fever
Sore throat
Exudative tonsilitis
Pharyngitis
Tender, enlarged cervical lymph nodes
May be accompanied by otis media

Scarlet fever occurs when the infecting strain of streptococcus produces a...

pyrogenic exotoxin; in which the patient is sensitized but not immune to the toxin

What does the rash that accompanines sore throat in scarlet fever feel like.

Sandpaper

What is the infectious agent of Streptococcal Diseases

Streptococcus pyogens

What is the treatment of choice for strept infections

Benzathine Penicillin G- IM

What is the incubation period for strept

1 to 3 days

Passive immunity to strept A disease may occur in..

Newborns

What are some early signs and symptoms Tuberculosis

Night sweats and weight loss

What are some advanced signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis

Hemoptysis, hoarsness, and chest pain

What is the infectious agent of Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Presumptive diagnosis of active disease Tuberculosis is made by the demonstration of acid- fast bacilli in stainded smears from...

sputum and other body fluids

Ciguatera fish poisoning causes..

Diarrhea,Temp reversal(hot feels cold cold feels hot)

In ciguatera fish poisoning the bigger the fish

The more potent the toxin

Diagnosis of ciguatera is confirmed by

demonstrating the ciguatixin in implicated fish

Scombroid fish poisoning (histamine posion) causes

Tingling and burning sensation around the mouth and rash

Preventive measures for Scombroid fish poisioning

Adequate refrigeration and irradation to prevent spoilage

Organophosh insecticides signs and symptoms include

chest pain cyanosis, confusion, twitching and convulsions

Cooking materials contaminated with toxic metals cause

Vomitting, nausea, paresis of facial muscles, pain in throat

Bacterial pathogens account for over..

20 % of know disease outbreaks in the U.S.

What is the most common form of Botulism in the US

Infant botulism

What is the infectious agent of botulism

Clostridium botulinum toxins

What is the temperature requriement for inactivation of spores in botulism

240 degrees farenheit

What is the treatment for botulism

IV administration of 1 vial polyvalent (AB or ABE) as soon as possible

Where does botulism occur

More common where home canning is popular

What is a reservoir for botulism

soil, marine sediment, intestinal tracts of animals and fish, and honey

Incubation period for botulism

Avg: 12-36 hrs, the shorter the incubation period the more severe the disease

In intestinal botulism, toxins are found for weeks to months in...

feces

What is the infectious agent of Campylobacter Enteritis

Campylobacter jejuni

What is the treatment for Campylobacter Enteritis

Electrolyte replacement

What is the most common bacterial food bourne illness in the US

Campylobacter Enteritis or Campylobacter jejuni

What are some reservoirs for campylobacter enteritis

Cattlle, and puppies or kittens

What is the infectious agent of Clostridium perfringens food bourne intoxications

C. perfringens and C. welchii and Type C strains

What strains of Clostriudm perfringens cause necrotizing enteritis

Type C

Almost all outbreaks of clostridium perfringens outbreaks are associated with inadquately heated/reheated

Meats,stews,meat pies and gravy

For clostridium perfringens, their is no resistance after..

repeated exposures

Method of control for Clostridium perfringens is to

Heat all foods to atleast 165 degrees farenheit

What is the infectious agent of Staphylococcus intoxication

Several enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and can also be stable at boiling temperatures

What is a reservoir for Staph

humans and about 25% of people are carriers

What is a mode of transmission for staph

Associated conditions of infected cut, boils, acne, and or URI

What is a method of control for staph

Keep hot food above 140 degress and cold food cold food below 41 degrees

Where does salmonellosis mostly occur

Incidnence rates are highest in small children

What is a reservoir for Salmonellosis

Turtles, chicks, dog, cats

What are some signs and symptoms of Shigellosis

Stools may contain blood, mucus and pus or a watery diarrhea

What are contraindicated and may prolong illness of Shigellosis

Antimotility agents

Shigellosis peak during what time of year

Summer

In Shigellosis, carrier state may persist for...

months or longer

What is the infectious agent for Typhoid fever

Salmonella typhi

What is an important vector when it comes to mode of transmission of Typhpoid

Flies

What is the range and average incubation period for Typhoid

Range is 3-30days average is 8-14 days

What are some signs and symptoms of cholera

Rapid dehydration, Acidosis, depletion of alkaline reserves of the body creating an acid pH in the body tissues and ciruclatory collapse

What is the average incubation period of Cholera

2-3 days

What is the infectious agent of Vibrio Parahemolyticus Enteritis

Vibrio parahaemolyticus (halophilic vibrio) which requires high levels of slat to produce optimal growth

What are reservoirs for V. Parahemolyticus Enteritis

Cold season: marine silt
Warm season: Coastal waters, fish, and shellfish

Vibrio Parahemolyticus Enteritis is non-communicable from..

person to person

What is the most dangerous infectious agent of E. coli

Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) serotype 0157:H7
shiga toxin which may reslut in hemolytic uremic syndrome

Food and child care workers with E.coli must provide 2 successive negative fecal samples greater than ...

48 hrs after antibiotic therapy

Which Influenza Types are isolated only from humans

Influenza type B and C

Which Influenza is associated with sporadic cases and minor localized outbreaks

Influenza type C

What are the Reservoirs for Influenza

Mainly humans swine, and avian species

Influenza's period of communicability is...

3-5 days from clincial onset

What are the seriological sub groups of Menigococcal Meningitis

A,B,C,X,Y,Z and W-135

Menningitis is transfered via....

Direct conatct, respiratory droplets from nose and throat especially in crowded conditions

When does strept throat usually peak?

Late winter and early spring

Confirmatory diagnosis of Tuberculosis is done by...

Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on culture

What are reservoirs for Tuberculosis

Primarily humans and cattle (Bovine TB)

Which kind of Tuberculosis is generally not communicable?

Extra pulmonary

Which kind of Tuberculosis is highly contagious

Laryngeal Tuberculosis

How is Tuberculosis transmitted

Exposure to bacilli in airborne droplet nuclei by:
coughing
sneezing
Singing
Talking

What is a preventive measure for Tuberculosis

Skin testing progams by the Mantoux method

A sign and symptom of Diptheria is characterized by a lesion marked by a patch or patches of

Adherent grayish membrane with surrounding inflammation

Enlarged tender cervical lymph nodes and edema in the neck is a sign and symptom of...

Diptheria

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