Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Periodic Table

Chart with elements organized in regular cycles or groups

Element

Consists of atoms with the same number of protons.

Period

A horizontal row of elements on the PT- chemical properties change in a regular way

Group

Vertical column on PT- Elements have similar properties.

Metals

Left hand side of the PT- Malleable, ductile, solid, shiny, and conduct heat and electricity

Non-metals

Right hand side of the PT- Not metals, poor conductors of heat and electricity.

Halogens

Group 17 on the PT

Inert/Noble gases

Group 18 on the PT- Unreactive due to full outer shell

Atom

the smallest particle an element can be divided into- positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons.

Molecule

Two or more atoms chemically joined

Compound

two or more different atom chemically joined

Proton

Positively charged particle found in the nucleus- also the atomic number

Neutron

neutral particle found in the nucleus- part on the mass

Electron

Negatively charged particle with very little mass- orbits the nucleus.

Nucleus

positively charged centre of an atom- made up on protons and neutrons and is the heavy part.

Mass number

Number of proton and electrons added together in the nucleus- what makes an element heavy

Atomic number

Number of protons in the nucleus- same as the number of electrons

Electron configuration

Order the electrons are arranged

Ionic compound

Made up of oppositely charged ions. Fill other shell of electrons are made by donating electrons. (metal-nonmetal)

Covalent compound

Compound made up of sharing electrons to get a full outer shell. (nonmetal-nonmetal)

Ion

charged atom or group of atoms

Isotope

The same element but different mass number. Same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Rate of reaction

how fast a reaction occurs

Collision theory

A reaction will only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy and at the right angle

Surface area and rate of reaction

surface area increases the number of collisions between particles per second so increases the rate of reaction.

Temperature and rate of reaction

Particles have more energy at higher temperatures. This increases number of collisions per second and the effectiveness of the collisions. Increases ROR

Concentration and rate of reaction

Increases number of particles so increases number of collisions per second. Increases the ROR

Catalyst and rate of reaction

Increased the effectiveness of collisions so it increases the ROR. They dont get used up in the reaction

Acid

pH less that 7. Produces H+ ions. Can neutralise a base

Base/alkali

pH greater that 7. produces OH- ions. Metal oxides or hydroxides are bases. Can neutralise acids

Lime water

Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2. Base- used to test for carbon dioxide- goes cloudy

pH scale

A way of measuring thow acidic or basic a substance is - less that 7= acid. 7=neutral. More than 7= base

Neutralisation

pH of 7. Neither acidic or basic. Acid and base cancel each other out.

Acid + Base (metal oxide/hydroxide)

= Salt + water

Acid + Carbonate

= Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide

Metal + Oxygen

= Metal Oxide

Acid + Metal

= Salt + Hydrogen

Decomposition

Decomposition reaction uses heat to break down a substance

Universal indicator

Changes colour depending on pH. Red > Orange > Yellow > Green > Blue > Purple

Litmus indicator

Changes colour depending on pH. Red=Acid. Green=Neutral. Purple=Base

Hydrogen test

Collect and burn gas. POP= hydrogen is present

Carbon dioxide test

Bubble gas through limewater. Goes cloudy if carbon dioxide is present

Oxygen test

Gas will relight a glowing splint if oxygen is present.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set