When blood flows backwards it is called _____.
Delivery system, blood pressure regulation, exchange of nutrients and waste, redistribution of blood and temperature regulation
List the 5 main functions of blood.
prolonged _____ can lead to tissue death.
prolonged _____ can lead to paralysis.
The force exerted against the walls of the (large) arteries due to pumping of the heart is known as _____.
_____ pressure is the pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction.
120-139 mm Hg
This is the systolic pressure range for prehypertension.
140 mm Hg
Systolic pressure greater than _____ is considered to be hypertension.
_____ pressure is the pressure in the arteries during ventricular relaxation.
80-90 mm Hg
This range is the diastolic measure for prehypertension.
90 mm Hg
Someone with a diastolic pressure of greater than _____ is said to have hypertension.
Systolic - diastolic pressure
What is the formula for calculating pulse pressure?
The farther away you get from the heart the (lower/higher) your blood pressure.
When taking blood pressure, the _____ is forcibly compressed until blood flow is stopped.
When taking blood pressure readings, the _____ pressure is indicated by the first korotkoff sounds heard through the stethoscope.
When taking blood pressure readings, the _____ pressure is recorded when the korotkoff sounds disappear.
Elevated blood pressure causes a pathology known as _____.
Blood pressure varies depending on the type of _____.
Blood moves forward in the veins because they have _____.
0 mm Hg
At the vena cavae, pressure is _____
Low pressure in the veins
Due to __________, blood relies on three other mechanisms to return blood back to the heart.
Skeletal muscle pump, venoconstriction, respiratory pump
List the three mechanisms used to return blood back to the heart.
Sympathetic stimulation of the SA node, av node, myocardium of the heart, and arterioles
In what ways does the body act to raise blood pressure when it is too low?
Myocardium and blood vessels
Blood pressure is the result of the function of the __________.
High / Low
Contraction of the heart muscle forces blood out of the ventricles from an area of (high/low) pressure to an area of (high/low)
True or False: blood vessels have the ability to change in diameter.
When an increase in vessel diameter causes a decrease in resistance and a decrease in blood pressure this is called _____.
when a decrease in vessel diameter causes an increased resistance and increased BP it is known as _____.
Cardiac output X vascular resistance
The formula for blood pressure is _____
True or False: A decrease in SV and/or HR can increase CO and therefor BP
True or False: an increase in SV and/or HR can decrease cardiac output and therefor BP.
Vascular resistance is primarily determined by _____.
Sympathetic nervous system, hormones and drugs
What three mechanisms influence vascular resistance?
In vascular resistance the sympathetics stimulate the _____ to constrict and thus increases blood pressure.
Viscosity of blood and length of the blood vessels
How do blood and the blood vessels effect vascular resistance.
False (parasympathetics may quiet the sympathetics but they do not directly affect the blood vessels.
True or False: the parasympathetics act to directly affect the vascular resistance of the blood vessels.
These are rapidly acting mechanisms which affect blood pressure.
Aortic arch and carotid sinus
In what two areas are the rapidly acting mechanisms called baroreceptors located?
These are slowly acting mechanisms used to maintain blood pressure.
The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and ADH act to (increase/decrease) blood pressure.
The atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide act to (increase/decrease) blood pressure.
The atrial and brain natriuretic peptides are also known as _____.
True or False: every cell is 2 cell diameters away from a capillary bed.
False (blood moves slowly to provide time for exchange)
True or False: the blood in a capillary bed moves swiftly through these small vessels.
True or False: capillaries are thin walled.
Tissue space is also known as _____.
At the level of the _____ oxygen, water, electrolytes, and glucose move out of the blood stream into the surrounding tissue space.
At the level of the _____ waste products move from the interstitium into the capillary.
True or False: capillaries are thin walled with pores.
True or False: there are few capillaries in the body.
True or False: capillaries slow the blood flow.
Diffusion, filtration and osmosis
List the 3 forces involved in substance exchange across a capillary wall.
The movement of a substance from high to low concentration is called _____.
When pressure moves a substance across a semi-permeable membrane it is called _____.
The diffusion of water from high to low concentration is known as _____.
The accumulation of fluid in interstitial space.
Diffusion and filtration occur on the _____ side of the capillary bed.
Diffusion and osmosis occur on the _____ side of the capillary bed.
True or False: the capillaries pull 100% of the fluid they bring in back out on their way back to the heart.
The fluid that is not pulled out by the capillaries is drained by the _____.
Pulmonary edema and pedal edema are caused by _____.
Severe burns can cause edema through excess fluid buildup in the _____ space.
An excess excretion of _____ in the urine results in the build-up of fluid in the tissue space.
Heart failure, severe burn, kidney disease, kidney damage and blocked lymphatic drainage
What 5 things are mechanisms or causes of edema.
Kidney damage may cause a lack of ______ which decreases osmotic functions and increases the amount of fluid left in the interstitial space.
blood flow distribution (increases/decreases) in the skeletal muscles during exercise.
blood flow distribution (increases/decreases) in the abdomen during exercise.
blood flow distribution (increases/decreases) in the kidneys during exercise.
blood flow distribution (increases/decreases) in the skin during exercise.
blood flow distribution (increases/decreases) in other areas of the body during exercise.
Autonomic nervous system and hormones
These two factors may cause variations in blood flow distribution.
_____ elevations causes vasodilation of the vessels of skin allowing the skin to release heat and lower body temperature.
Temperature decreases cause _____ of vessels of the skin diverting blood and warmth to the core of the body.
True or False: as you age, walls of the arteries thin out.
blood flow / blood pressure
A thickening in the arterial walls can cause decreased ____ and increased _______.
True or False: as we age our valves become less effective and more susceptible to varicosities.
True or False: as we age our baroreceptors become less effective and can cause dizziness and falls.
Aging creates (increased/decreased) capillary membrane permeability.
True or False: we are more susceptible to edema the older we get.