Ancient Egypt and Fertile crescent civilizations

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hieroglyphics

a form of writing developed by the ancient Nile River valley people that used 600 signs pictures or symbols carved on stone

Rosetta Stone

the stone found in Egypt bearing an inscription in hieroglyphics greek and demotic which gave the first clues to deciphering Egyptiona hieroglyphics

Menes

a king of Upper Egypt who united all of Egypt into one kingdom

pharaoh

the title of upper Egypt who united all of Egypt inot one kingdom

polytheism

the belief in more than one god

cuneiform

Sumerian form of writing made by pressing a wedge shaped tool into clay tablets

ziggurat

Sumerian Temples made of layered sun dried brick the top of which seved as a shrine to a Sumerian God

city state

Sumerian form of independent community consisting of a town/city and its surrounding lands

Code of Hammurabi

the collection of 282 laws assembled by the Babylonian King Hammurabi which covered all aspects of life in Babylonia

Cyrus the Great

the persian leader who conquered Babylon, the Fertile Crescent, and Asia Minor, establishing the Perian Empire

Zoroastrianism

the religion of ancient Persia which centered on hte universal struggle between good and evil and the idea of final judgment

For what purpose did the Egyptians built the pyramids

they built them to be tombs for their rulers

What brought about the collapse of Egypt's Old Kingdom

weak rulers and civil wars

What provided a natural protection against invaders for the ancient Egyptians

The surrounding deserts and seas

List three physical features of the Nile River Valley contributed to the rise of civilization there

fertile soil, climate, and natural protective barriers

Explain the phrase history of the Fertile Crescent a story of repeated migration and conquest

every group of people that migrated ot the Fertile Crescent were eventually conquered destroyed and or forced out by anotgher gropu of migran ts who would then be conquered by another group and so on . This occurred dew to the Fertile crescent's lack of natural protective barriers

How did the early people of theTigris and Eupharates Valley view nature and the gods? Why?

The early people of the Tigris and Euphrated Valley viewed nature and the gods as harsh and unpredictable due to the irregular flooding of the area

List three major achievement of the Sumerian civilization

cuneiform, siggurat, system of numbers based on 60

Why didn't the Sumerian City States unite under a single government

Each city state believed in a different gods

How did the Sumerians view of the afterlife differ form that of the Egyptians

Unlike the Egyptians, the Sumerians did not place much emphasis on the afterlife, The sumerians viewed the afterlife as a dark and shadowy underworld and they didn't believe in rewards and punishment s in the afterlife

Priests were powerful figures in both sumerian and Babylonian culture. describe the different reasons for priest s power in these two ancient civilizations

as the middle man between the gods and the people priests had much power. The Sumerians believed that a god or gods protected city state Babylonians believed that their priests could foretell predict the future

On what idea was Hammurabi's system of pun ishment based

The code of Hammrabi was based on the idea of an eye for an eye

Describe two ways in which Persian King showed a great concern for justice

their administration of laws and taxes were done fairly and they allowed conquered peoples to keep their cultures

What were the two central beliefs of Zoroastrianism

The universal struggle between good and evil and the idea of final judgment

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