# AP HUG Chapter 1 Vocab. List

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### Map

A two-dimensional or flat-scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.

### Scale

The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole.

### Spatial

Of or pertaining to space on Earth's surface.

### Region

An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features.

### Map Scale

Referring to the relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth. Can be presented in three ways: fraction, ratio , and a written statement.

### Distortion of Maps

"All maps lie flat and all maps lie." Four types of distortion. Shape, Distance, Relative Size, and Direction.

### GIS (Geographic Information System)

A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze and display geographic data. Can be used to produce maps storing each type of information in layers.

### GPS (Global Positioning Satellite)

A system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth.

### Remote Sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance method. Create a photo of Earth's surface providing vital information.

### Toponym

The name given to a place on Earth. Example: The national capitol is named after George Washington.

### Site

The physical character of a place.

### Situation

The location of a place relative to other places.

### Projection

The scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map.

### Model

A simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify casual relationships: to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors.

### Longitude

The numbering system to which the location of each meridian is identified on Earth's surface.

### Meridian

An arc drawn between the North and South poles.

### Parallel

A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.

### Prime Meridian

The meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England at 0 degrees longitude.

### Latitude

The numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel.

### Equator

0 degrees latitude.

### North and South Poles

90 degrees North and South latitude.

### International Date Line

An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When crossed East, the clock moves back 24 hours. When crossed West the clock moves forward 24 hours.

### Cartogram Map

Adjusts the size of a country corresponding to the magnitude of a mapped feature

### Dot Map

Each dot represents some frequency.

### Choropleth Map

Puts features into classes and maps classes of each region.

### Isoline Map

Connects points of equal value.

### Mental Map

Map of an area in your mind.

### Cultural Landscape

A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation.

### Formal Region/Uniform Region

An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.

### Functional Region/Nodal Region

An area organized around a node or focal point.

### Perpetual Region/Vernacular Region

A place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity.

### Thematic Map

A map that displays spatial distribution of an attribute that relates to a single topic, theme or subject of discourse.

### Statistical Map

A special type of map in which the variation in quantity in a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated.

### Environmental Determinism

How the physical environment caused social development.

### Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.

### Arithmetic Density

The total number of objects in and area, is commonly used to compare the distribution of population in different countries.

### Physiological Density

The number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture.

### Pattern

The geometric arrangement of distribution. (linear, centralized, or random)

### Space-Time Compressions

The reduction in time it takes for something to reach another place.

### Diffusion

The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.

### Hearth

The place from which an innovation originates.

### Relocation Diffusion

The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.

### Expansion Diffusion

The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process. Is the result from either Hierarchical Diffusion, Contagious Diffusion, of Stimulus Diffusion.

### Hierarchical Diffusion

Spread of an idea from person or place of authority that results in Expansion Diffusion.

### Contagious Diffusion

Diffusion of a characteristic through the population that results in Expansion Diffusion. i.e. swine flu.

### Stimulus Diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle even if the characteristic fails to diffuse.

### Dispersed/Scattered

Relatively far apart.

Close together.

### Distance Decay

The trailing-off phenomenon

### Built Landscape

Features and patterns representing human occupation and use of natural resources.

### Grid

Intersecting at right angles at uniform intervals to form square or rectangle blocks.

### Friction of Distance

As the distance from a point increases, interactions within that point decrease usually because of time and cost involved with increase of distance.

### Connectivity

The degree to which the nodes of a network are directly connected with each other.

### Accesibility

The ability to reach a place with respect to another place.

### Natural Landscape

A landscape unaffected by human activity.

### Relative Location

A location of a place relative to another place.

### Absolute Location

A point on the earth's surface expressed by a coordinate system such as latitude and longitude.

### Distribution

The natural arrangements of animals and plants in particular regions or districts.

### Relative Distance

Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.

### Absolute Distance

Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.

### Absolute Direction

Based on North, South, East, or West.

### Relative Direction

The direction of a place in relation to that of other places.

### Sequent Occupancy

The succeeding stages of human inhabitation over time on one site.

### Time Zones

One of more than 24 divisions of the earth, based on sections 7.5 degrees east and west of every 15 degree increment of longitude. There are 24 time zones (360 degrees divided by 15 degrees is 24) plus several offset time zones. Time zones allow the time to follow the rotation of the earth.

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