The left- right or west - east axis on a graph or grid.
The up-down or north-south axis on a graph or grid.
positive relationship: we mean that two variables in this case, consumption and income change in the same direction.
Negative relationship: the two variables change in opposite direction.
Cause of the sources it is the variable that changes first.
effect or outcome; it is the variable that change because of the independent variable.
Slope of a straight line
The ratio of the vertical change(rise or drop) to the horizontal change(run) between any two points of the line.
of a line is the point where the line meets the vertical axis.
is a visual representation of the relationship between two variables.