thin, flat, scaly, often bulge where nucleus is
squarish-looking, equal in height and width
distinctly taller than wide
irregularly angular shapes with four, five, or more sides
multiple pointed processes projecting from the body (star shaped)
round to oval
spindle-shaped, elongated with thick middle and tapered ends
long, slender and threadlike
What does the cell surface consist of?
plasma membrane, glycocalyx, cell extentions
What does the cytoplasm consist of?
What does the nucleus consist of ?
______ is an oily, two-layered phospholipid film with proteins emebedded in it
______ has these functions: receptor molecules, cellular transport, cell-identity marker, and cell adhesion
What makes up the plasma membrane?
What maintains the fluid nature of the plasma membrane?
What serves for cell identificaion?
fuzzy, sugary coating formed by carbohydrated coponents of glycoproteins and glycolipids
extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface area for absorption (kidney tubules and small intestine)
short hairlike processes that are motile or nonmotile
long hairlike process for locomotion of human sperm
What are the 3 cell extentions?
microvilli, cilia, flagellum
What are the 3 intercellular junctions?
tite junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
seal of the intercellular space
prevent cells from pulling apart
enable free passing of nutrients and ions
network of protein filaments and tubules that structurally support a cell
metabolically active structures within a cell
genetic control center (contains chromosomes)
part of nucleus that synthesizes ribosomes
transport system, synthesizes steroids and other lipids, detoxifies alcohol
rough endoplasmic reticulum
covered with ribosomes; modifies and transports proteins to golgi complex
protein synthesis (translating the genetic code of DNA into protein)
further modifies proteins and packages them into secretory vesicles
break down used organelles and other substances
neutralize free radicals and detoxify drugs and toxins
energy conversion within cells (powerhouse)
participate in cell division, are part of centrosome
-all cells come from preexisting cells
-series of events in the life of a cell that culminates in mitosis and cytokinesis
-divided into 4 main phrases
are immature cells with the ability to develop into one or more types of mature, specialized cells
adult stem cells
exist in most of the body's organs (also in fetuses and children) and are unipotent or multipotent
able to develop only into one mature cell type (Ex Liver cell)
able to differentiate into multiple mature cell types
embryonic stem cells
are found in embryos and are pluripotent
able to develop into any type of embryonic or adult cell