## Forces and Newton's Laws of Motion

##### Created by:

destiny_rahl  on December 29, 2008

##### Description:

ICSE, Physics, Ch. 3

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# Forces and Newton's Laws of Motion

 ForceAn external cause that changes or tends to change the dimension or state of rest or uniform motion of a body in a straight line
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#### Definitions

Force An external cause that changes or tends to change the dimension or state of rest or uniform motion of a body in a straight line
Contact forces Applied on bodies through a connector
Non-contact forces/Forces at a distance Without any aid of connectors
Newton's first law of motion Every object in the universe will continue in it's state of uniform motion or rest, in a straight line, unless acted upon by an external force
Newton's second law of motion It states "the rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the force applied and the direction in which force is applied"
Momentum Mass x Velocity
Dyne Unit of force, CGS
Newton Unit of force, SI
Gram-force Gravitational unit of force, CGS
Kilogram-force Gravitational unit of force, SI
Inertia Tendency of a bod to continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line
Inertia of rest The tendency of a body to continue in it's state of rest even when some external force is applied on it
Inertia of motion The tendency of a body to continue in it's state of motion, even when some external force is applied to it
Newton's third law of motion Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Rigid body A body which does not get deformed under the action of a force or a number of forces
Point of action of force The point on the rigid body where the force acts
Line of action of force An imaginary line passing through point of action of force and drawn in the same direction as the force acts
Principle of transmissibility of force The point of action of force can be transferred anywhere along the line of action of force without causing material distance in the movement of the body
Moment of force The turrning effect produced by a force acting on a rigid body
Torque Force x perpendicular distance
Principle of moments When a number of forces acting on a body keep it in equilibrium, the sum total of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum total of the anti-clockwise moments
Couple Two equal and unlike forces, whose line of action is not same
Moment of coule The turning effect of couple around a fixed point or axis
Centre of gravity Point in the body where whole body is supposed to act
Equilibrium When a body does not change it's state or rest or uniform motion on the application of external forces it is said to be in
Stable Equilibrium New place on application of force, when the force is removed, back to the original place
Unstable equilibrium New position on application of force, on removal of force it does not return to the original position
Neutral Equilibrium On action of force, moves to a new place rather than position, and on removal may or may not come back to the original place
Circular motion Thge motion of a body around a circular path, with a uniform speed but variable velocity, such that the acceleration acts at right angles to the direction of speed
Centripetal force The force acting on a body moving along a circular path, with constant speed, such that the force is directed towards the center of changes only the direction of motion of body
Centrifugal force A force equal and opposite to the centripetal force, and directed outward from the circular path

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