Derived from the Greek words "ta biblia," meaning "the books." It is a collection of individual works which are authoritative for Christians and Jews.
Greek words which mean "the books," referring to "The Bible."
Any writing that is regarded as sacred by a religious group.
A word meaning "covenant," the open-ended contract of love between God and human beings. There is the Old Testament and the New Testament in the Christian Bible.
The first part of the Christian Bible, corresponding to the Hebrew Bible. It contains 39 books and records God's work in the history of the ancient Israelites and His covenant with His chosen people.
The Jewish scriptures which consist of three divisions--the Torah (Law, instruction), the Nevi'im (Prophets) and the Ketuvim (Writings).
A list of books considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular religious community.
Old Testament books recognized by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, but not by Protestants.
A term meaning "second canon" - books included in the Catholic Old Testament but not in the Hebrew Bible
The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. It is called this because supposedly it was translated in 70 days by 72 elders. This version is so important because it made God's words available in the language of the "civilized world" at that time. This is also the version often quoted in the N.T.
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the river."
An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C. The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing.
A city of ancient Sumer in southern Mesopotamia on a site in present-day southeast Iraq. One of the oldest cities in Mesopotamia, it was an important center of Sumerian culture after c. 3000 B.C. and the birthplace of Abraham.
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of King Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. This empire conquered Judah in 586 B.C.E.
An ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia which is in present-day Iraq. It was a bloody and wicked empire that terrorized the whole Middle East and constantly threatened both Israel and Judah. Eventually the (people from this place) destroyed Israel and scattered its people in 722 B.C.E.
In antiquity, the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948.
Located on the Nile, this nation was ruled by pharaohs. Its civilization was based on geography, protected by desert and irrigated by the Nile River. It is referred to as "the gift of the Nile."
The current capital of Israel and an ancient city that is holy to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It was the political and religious capitol of the nation of Israel during the period of the monarchy.
Body of water that lies southeast of Iraq and east of Saudi Arabia. Used as a trade route in the ancient Middle East. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers emptied into this body of water.
The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea.
A large body of water bordered by Europe, Asia, and Africa.
A river in Palestine that empties into the Dead Sea.
A landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters; it is 1,349 feet below sea level, making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth.
The date of the conquest of the land of Canaan by the Israelites began at this time and ushered in the period of the judges.
The date of the beginning of the Israelite monarchy.
The date of the split of the Israelite monarchy. The kingdom split into the Northern Kingdom (Israel) and the Southern Kingdom (Judah).
The date the Assyrians defeated the Northern Kingdom of Israel and exiled the Israelites.
The Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple, and the inhabitants of Judah to Babylon.
The date of the Persian conquest under Cyrus of Great. He allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple.
The Tanakh. What is referred to as the Old Testament by Christians.
Representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms.
A concise and often witty statement of wisdom or opinion; a proverb.
The study of the cause or origin of why things are the way they are. Also the study of the cause of why locations are named what they are named.
Line of descent traced continuously from an ancestor.
The divinely-inspired utterances of a prophet.
An ancient area of fertile soil and important rivers stretching in an arc from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Nile River. The Mediterranean lies on the outside edge of the arc. To the south of the arc is the Arabian Desert. On the east, the fertile crescent extends to the Persian Gulf.