What three steps are basic to all our sensory systems?
1. Receive sensory stimulation, often using specialized receptor cells
2. Transform that stimulation into neural impulses
3. Deliver the neural information to your brain
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system take in stimulus energies from our environment.
The process by which our brain organizes and interupts sensory information, transforming it into meaningful objects and events.
Changing one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive or remember objects or events in certain ways.
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticable difference (or jnd).
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum proportion (rather than a constant amount).
Reduced sensitivity in response to constant stimulation.
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
The amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye; contains the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, an gray; necessary for peripheral and twiligh vision, when cones don't respond.
Retinal receptor cells that are concetrated near the center of the retina; in daylight or well-lit conditions, cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; this part of the retina is "blind" because it has no receptor cells.
Nerve cell in the brain that responds to specific features of a stimulus, such as edges, lines, and angles.
The processing of many aspects of a problem or scene at the same time; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups.
The ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
A depth cue, such as retinal disparity, that depends on the use of two eyes.
A binocular cue for perceiving depth. By comparing images from the two eyes, the brain computes distance-the greater th disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
A depth cue, such as interposition or linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent color, brightness, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters th wavelenghs reflected by the object.
In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
The sense or act of hearing.
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses.
A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.