Anatomy Physiology of the heart

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The heart and its parts.

mediastinum

The space between the lungs in the middle of the chest where the heart lies.

pericardium

A double-layered membrane that surrounds the heart.

great vessels

Pulmonary arteries and veins, aorta, superior and inferior vena cavae.

base of the heart

The heart's upper portion. It lies at about the level of the second rib.

heart's apex

The lower portion of the heart formed by the tip of the left ventricle. It lies just above the diaphragm.

atria

The two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood.

right atrium

Receives blood that is low in oxygen.

left atrium

Receives freshly oxygenated blood.

superior vena cava

Carries blood to the right atrium from the head and upper extremities.

inferior vena cava

Carries blood to the right atrium from the lower body.

coronary sinus

The largest vein that drains the heart into the right atrium.

right and left pulmonary veins

Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

ventricles

The two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood.

right ventricle

Pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs via the left and right pulmonary arteries.

left ventricle

Pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta and it's branches.

Apical impulse

Impulse that can be felt at the apex of the heart when the left ventricle contracts.

sulci

Grooves on the outside surface of the heart.

coronary sulcus

A groove that encircles the outside of the heart and separates the atria from the ventricles.

septum

An internal wall separating the right and left sides of the heart.

interatrial septum

Separates the right and left atria.

interventricular septum

Separates the right and left ventricles.

Pulmonary circulation

Circulation from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart.

Systemic circulation

Circulation of oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the body and back to the right side of the heart.

Atrial kick

Additional contribution of blood (30%) because of atrial contraction.

Stroke volume

The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle with each heartbeat.

Ejection fraction

The percentage of blood pumped out of a heart chamber with each contraction.

endocardium

A thin smooth layer of epithelium and connective tissue that lines the hearts inner chamber.

myocardium

A thin muscular layer that consists of cardiac muscle fibers responsible for the pumping action of the heart.

epicardium

External layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium.

Ischemia

A decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.

pericardium

A double walled sac that encloses the heart and helps protect it from trauma and infection.

Fibrous parietal pericardium

The rough outer layer of the pericardial sac.

serous pericardium

Two layers that make up the inner layer of the pericardium.(perietal and visceral)

perietal layer

Lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium.

visceral layer

Adheres to the outside of the heart and forms the outer layer of the heart muscle also called the epicardium.

pericardial space

The space between the perital and visceral layers that normally contains 20 mL of serous fluid.

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium.

Cardiac output

The amount of blood the ventricles can pump to the body

Pericardiocentesis

Surgical puncture to remove fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart.

Sarcolemma

Membrane that encloses each muscle cell.

Mitochondria

The energy producing part of a cell.

Myofibrils

Thread-like structures which have a contractile function

Transverse tubules

Channels perpendicular to myofibrils that extend through fiber

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Stores and releases calcium into sarcoplasm after nervous stimulation

atrioventricular valves

Separate the atria from the ventricles

tricuspid valve

The AV valve that lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

mitral or bicuspid valve

The AV valve that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

Systole

contraction phase of the heartbeat

Diastole

relaxation phase of the heartbeat

chordae tendineae

the tendonlike, fibrous cords that connect the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles of the ventricles

papillary muscles

responsible for pulling the atrioventricular valves closed by means of the chordae tendineae

semilunar valves

Separate the ventricles from arteries. Right sided pulmonic, left sided aortic. Open during systole to allow blood to be ejected from the heart.

pulmonic valve

Separates right ventricle and pulmonary artery

aortic valve

located between the left ventricle and the aorta

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