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test one

According to the DSM-IV's definition of mental disorder impairment in one or more areas of functioning (disability)

May be present but is not a necessary condition for making a diagnosis

individuals who have alcohol problems tend to come from families with other individuals who have alcohol problems. This would suggest

Although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be concluded

why would a researcher want to insure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample?

It increases the researcher's ability to generalize findings for the larger group

What do the cases of Monique and Donald Best illustrate?

Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances

The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year...

incidence rate

ideally a sample is described as what

representative

the fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates...

The values of a society may change over time

Which mental health professional has a doctoral degree in psychology with both research and clinical skill specialization?

clinical psychologist

A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using

Experimental method

in a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as

dependent variable

the Solarists are a cult whose members believe that they control the movements of the sun with special hand gestures...

while some of this group's members ay meet criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis, the DSM-IV does not diagnose groups

why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder

the selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions of causality

which of the following is an example of an analogue study?

rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

all were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800's except

antipsychotic medication

according to early beliefs, what would characterize an individual with an excess of blood?

happiness

in 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors play a key role

mass madness

benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following except

taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders

which is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in psychopathology because it established the link b/w mental and physical illnesses?

teh discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity)

both _______ and ______ studied the effects of consequences on the occurrence of behaviors

Thorndike; Skinner

by the end of the nineteenth century

little was known about most mental illnesses

all are credited with emphasizing the link b/w brain pathology and mental illnesses except

dix

in the United States, an early treatment involved the belief that

patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly

which is true?

genes play a role in most mental disorders

Schmas

may be a source of psychological vulnerability

why is it difficult to determine the nature of the relationship b/w divorce and psychological functioning of family members?

cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely

suppose that, using linkage analysis, a researcher finds that family members with a high likelihood of developing depression also are very likely to be of below average height

the gene for depression is probably located near the gene for height

sammy was deprived of his mother and father's love as a child. Operant conditioning theorists...

a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas

michael develops an intense phobia of snakes after stepping on one and being bitten during a hike. Being bitten by the snake is a ...

proximal casual factor

which is an example of family aggression

karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder

why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies?

conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed

comorbidity means

that a person has two or more disorders

what trype of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder

point prevalence

the physicians of nancy school

demonstrated the power of suggestion

the emergence of humanism brought about changes in all except

an increse in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior

what parental style is characterised by warmth, control, and communication

authoritative

a ______ serves to guide our processing of information and may serve to distort memories

schema

which typically involves the use of trained observers

direct observation

people in the middle ages

believed that most wiches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different way

andrea and her parents are shy and quiet...

an evocative effect of genotype in environment

what is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders

a group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except they eat normally

Which of the following is a sufficient element to determine abnormality?

there is no sufficient element

several studies have found that there is a correlation in children between amount of television watched and weight. What is one of the problems with using this finding to report that watching lots of TV makes children obese?

it is just possible that being obese causes children to watch more television

to determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, an not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

control group

carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he ahs had several arrests for driving with intoxicated, Carl reports that he ahs no problems with drinking. This is an example of

the problems with self reported data

what is importtant to remember about the apprent lifetime rate of mental disorders

many people with mental disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time

what is wrong with describing someone as being schizophrenic

lables should be applied to disorders not people

a researcher who studies children who are home-schooled and compares them to children who attend school is using the ____ research method

correlation

according to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder?

when it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual

which of the following mental health professionals has a medical degree

psychiatrist

which of the following statements is true concerning classification systems for mental disorders?

classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims

which of the following is included in the DSM

a means of identifying different mental disorders

if you visited an asylum in the 16th century in Eurpoe you would likely find

mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty

a behavioral psychologist would be most likely to use

observational techniques

mesmer was a proponent of

the power of animal magnetism

which of the following approaches to treatment focuses amost exclusively on physical well-being

mental hygiene

the doctrine of the four humours

was an explanatino for personality traits

free association and dream analysis

proved insight into the workings of the unconcious

by the end of the 19th century

little was known aboaut most mental diseases

a catharsis is

an emotional release

dana's mother suffers from serious depressive episodes. dana is likely to

be a risk for depression herself

etiology is

the casual pattern of a disorder

why is it particularly useful to study identical twins who are raised in different environments?

it is possible that high concordance rates between identical twins reared together is due to their being treated more similarly than non-identical twins.

according to the text, which of the following has not be identified as a potential protective factor?

an outgoign personality

the process of assigning causes to things that happen is called

attribution

one of Freud's major contribution to current perspectives of mental disorders is

theconcept of the unconscious and how it can affect behavior

which of the following is an example of family aggregation

karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder

in Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls without eating disorders and the ____ group.

control

which of the following is an example of an ABAB design

a subject is observed both before and after two exposures to the treatment

in 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that

unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders

what is the focus of the field of developmental psychopathology?

to understand what is within the range of normal development so as to have a better understanding of what is abnormal

which of the following is NOT a culture bound syndrome

hoopa

an important first step in studying a particular disorder is

determinging the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder

the first classification of mental disorders involved

recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder

when examining heredity, mental disorders are almost always

caused by multiple genes

in most prospective studies

children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up

the level of success achieved with the use of moral management is surprising because

may patients suffered from syphillis that was, at the time, incurable

exorcism is

still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results

one of Aristotole's most major contributions to psychology was

his description of conciousness

the physicians of Alexandria, Egypt in the era after Alexander the Great were most likely to treat mental patients by

providing activites, massage, and education

which of the following statements about brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorders is FALSE?

identifiable brain damage is often the cause of psychiatric disorders

contemporary of Pinel's in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was

william tuke

who is considered to be the "father" of behaviorism?

watson

at the start of the twentieth century in America, public attitudes toward the mentally ill

were characterised by fear, horror, and ignroance

Shackling a patient to a wall with little food or heat would be most typical of

the early asylums in eurpoe

abused toddlers and infants

are likely to show inconsistent attaachment behavior

Dr. Katz is researching the causes of phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is

he is not getting a representative sample

The "neurasthenia" recognized in the 1800s resembles todays diagnosis of

depression

A lack of social skills, poor school performance, and moodiness have all been associated with which of the following parenting styles?

neglectful-involved

What was the purpose of the early asylums?

to remove those who could not care for themselves from society

what is important to remember about the apparent high lifetime rate of mental disorders?

many people with disorder are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time

highly coordinated children are picked out at an early age by coaches and given special opportunities to excel at sports. Extraverted children seek out social situations and become unusually comfortable with strangers. Both of these phenomena illustrate

genotype-environment correlations

when examining heredity, mental disorders are almost always

influenced by multiple genes

Nancy School/Charcot debate is best described as one that focuses on

psychology vs biology

the site of communication between two neurons is the

synapse

what trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe?

supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.

a psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is

weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.

psychosocial perspective was initially developed through laboratory research?

behavioral

tracy and Shahid are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Shahid is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate

differences in temperament

freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected

unconcious

what do the textbook authors identify as the most problematic element of Wakefield's definition of mental disorder?

we have yet to discover the dysfunction that underlies most mental disorders.

cicero was feeling depressed. He sought help from Hippocrates. Hippocrates would probably have

prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy

in ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was

thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god

Children from lower-SES families

are less likely to show ill effects of SES status if they possess a high IQ and develop healthy attachments to adults and peers.

What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock?

Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.

Which of the following did Freud believe played a causal role in the development of most forms of psychopathology?

anxiety disorders

Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of

failure to learn adaptice behaviors

newer psychodynamic perspectives

do not view the libido as a primary determinant of behavior

Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of

is possessed at a nonconcious level

Which of the following psychodynamic elements of the personality can be described as impulsive and selfish?

id

hippocrates suggested marriage as a cure for

hysteria in women

Learning not to do something because you are punished when you do it is an example of

instrumental learning

The effects of early social deprivation

are explained differently by the various psychosocial perspectives.

During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as

punitive

normal human cells have

22 chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes

Archaeology and early writing indicate that the first people to think that the brain was the site of mental functions were the

ancient egyptians

Todd and his siblings have parents who are physically abusive to each other. When they fight, they expect Todd to stay quiet and keep the other children under control. They allow the other children to cry and hide, but Todd must stay in the room with them and referee. This is an example of

a nonshared environmental influence

In 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that

unconcious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders

what is a culture-specific

a disorder seen only in certain cultures

A child consistently identified as behaviorally inhibited is most likely to

be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder as an adult

Finding meaning in life and dealing with death form core values in which of the following perspectives?

existential

Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means

the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness

A significant positive correlation is found between variables x and y. Which of the following may be safely inferred?

as x increases, y increases

Dorothea Dix

is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries

Fred refuses to speak at school, although he speaks normally at home. His therapist plans out a treatment where Fred is given a gold star every time he answers his teacher, and he can then trade in his stars for prizes. Fred begins speaking in class. The therapist then tells the teacher to stop the program for a couple of weeks. Fred stopped talking during that time. The teacher then starting giving Fred stars again, and Fred again began to talk. This is an example of

an ABAB experimental desgin study

Wakefield's conception of "mental disorder" included the idea of ________________as most central to diagnosis.

harmful dysfunction

Behaviorists suggest maladaptive behavior can be a result of

failure to learn adaptive behaviors

If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that

the concordance for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordancecrate for dizygotic twins

To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

a control group

The disorder Koro, where males fear that their genitals have retracted into their body, possibly leading to death, is similar to the episodes of mass madness during the Black Death because

both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?

when a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost

Witmer is credited with

being the founder of clinical psychology

each of the following is one of the four humors except

phrenities

phillippe pinel

beleived that mental patients were illl and needed to be treated as such - with kindness and caring

genes

determine the range of characteristics a person has

Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being?

mental hygiene

what do genes consist of

DNA

in the field of ab. psych what does DSM stand for

diagnostic and statistical manual

in most prospective studies

children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up

When comparing modern concepts of abnormal behavior with those of ancient civilizations, we find

some striking similiarities

Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA are all

neurotransmitters that are involoved in psychopathology

Lasting negative effects of abuse on psychological functioning are most likely when the abuse occurs in

early childhood

________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.

classification

which variable is manipulated in an experiment

independent

Who is credited with making the first major steps toward understanding the psychological factors involved in mental illness?

sigmund freud

Dr. Luigi has discovered that the more spaghetti people eat, the less likely they are to be diagnosed with depression. Based on this finding, what statement can be made about the relationship between spaghetti and depression?

there is a negative correlation between spaghetti and depression

What does the case of JGH, a Native American elder, illustrate?

A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when depressed.

A common treatment for mental illness during the Middle Ages in Europe was

exorcism

Which method for studying genetic influences fails to control for the possible effect of sharing a common environment?

family history or pedigree method

Reuptake of neurotransmitters is

the process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon

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