According to the DSM-IV's definition of mental disorder impairment in one or more areas of functioning (disability)
May be present but is not a necessary condition for making a diagnosis
individuals who have alcohol problems tend to come from families with other individuals who have alcohol problems. This would suggest
Although there is an association, no cause-effect relationship can be concluded
why would a researcher want to insure that every person in the larger group of study has an equal chance of being included in the sample?
It increases the researcher's ability to generalize findings for the larger group
What do the cases of Monique and Donald Best illustrate?
Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances
The mayor of a city wants to know the number of new cases of a disorder over the past year...
the fact that body piercings are commonplace today while they would once have been viewed as abnormal illustrates...
The values of a society may change over time
Which mental health professional has a doctoral degree in psychology with both research and clinical skill specialization?
A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using
in a study of the effects of ice cream on mood, the mood after ice cream exposure can be described as
the Solarists are a cult whose members believe that they control the movements of the sun with special hand gestures...
while some of this group's members ay meet criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis, the DSM-IV does not diagnose groups
why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder
the selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions of causality
which of the following is an example of an analogue study?
rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
according to early beliefs, what would characterize an individual with an excess of blood?
in 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors play a key role
benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following except
taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders
which is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in psychopathology because it established the link b/w mental and physical illnesses?
teh discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity)
both _______ and ______ studied the effects of consequences on the occurrence of behaviors
in the United States, an early treatment involved the belief that
patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly
why is it difficult to determine the nature of the relationship b/w divorce and psychological functioning of family members?
cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely
suppose that, using linkage analysis, a researcher finds that family members with a high likelihood of developing depression also are very likely to be of below average height
the gene for depression is probably located near the gene for height
sammy was deprived of his mother and father's love as a child. Operant conditioning theorists...
a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas
michael develops an intense phobia of snakes after stepping on one and being bitten during a hike. Being bitten by the snake is a ...
proximal casual factor
which is an example of family aggression
karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder
why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies?
conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed
the emergence of humanism brought about changes in all except
an increse in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior
people in the middle ages
believed that most wiches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different way
what is a good control group for a research study on people with eating disorders
a group that is comparable to those with eating disorders except they eat normally
Which of the following is a sufficient element to determine abnormality?
there is no sufficient element
several studies have found that there is a correlation in children between amount of television watched and weight. What is one of the problems with using this finding to report that watching lots of TV makes children obese?
it is just possible that being obese causes children to watch more television
to determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, an not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use
carl is asked to provide information about his drinking. Despite the fact that he ahs had several arrests for driving with intoxicated, Carl reports that he ahs no problems with drinking. This is an example of
the problems with self reported data
what is importtant to remember about the apprent lifetime rate of mental disorders
many people with mental disorders are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time
what is wrong with describing someone as being schizophrenic
lables should be applied to disorders not people
a researcher who studies children who are home-schooled and compares them to children who attend school is using the ____ research method
according to the DSM, when is deviant behavior viewed as indicative of a mental disorder?
when it is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual
which of the following statements is true concerning classification systems for mental disorders?
classification systems meet the needs of medical insurance companies who need diagnoses in order to authorize payment of claims
if you visited an asylum in the 16th century in Eurpoe you would likely find
mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty
which of the following approaches to treatment focuses amost exclusively on physical well-being
dana's mother suffers from serious depressive episodes. dana is likely to
be a risk for depression herself
why is it particularly useful to study identical twins who are raised in different environments?
it is possible that high concordance rates between identical twins reared together is due to their being treated more similarly than non-identical twins.
according to the text, which of the following has not be identified as a potential protective factor?
an outgoign personality
one of Freud's major contribution to current perspectives of mental disorders is
theconcept of the unconscious and how it can affect behavior
which of the following is an example of family aggregation
karen, her mother, and her grandmother all have been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder
in Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls without eating disorders and the ____ group.
which of the following is an example of an ABAB design
a subject is observed both before and after two exposures to the treatment
in 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that
unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders
what is the focus of the field of developmental psychopathology?
to understand what is within the range of normal development so as to have a better understanding of what is abnormal
an important first step in studying a particular disorder is
determinging the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder
the first classification of mental disorders involved
recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder
in most prospective studies
children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up
the level of success achieved with the use of moral management is surprising because
may patients suffered from syphillis that was, at the time, incurable
still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results
the physicians of Alexandria, Egypt in the era after Alexander the Great were most likely to treat mental patients by
providing activites, massage, and education
which of the following statements about brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorders is FALSE?
identifiable brain damage is often the cause of psychiatric disorders
contemporary of Pinel's in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was
at the start of the twentieth century in America, public attitudes toward the mentally ill
were characterised by fear, horror, and ignroance
Shackling a patient to a wall with little food or heat would be most typical of
the early asylums in eurpoe
Dr. Katz is researching the causes of phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is
he is not getting a representative sample
A lack of social skills, poor school performance, and moodiness have all been associated with which of the following parenting styles?
What was the purpose of the early asylums?
to remove those who could not care for themselves from society
what is important to remember about the apparent high lifetime rate of mental disorders?
many people with disorder are not seriously affected by them or may have them for only a short time
highly coordinated children are picked out at an early age by coaches and given special opportunities to excel at sports. Extraverted children seek out social situations and become unusually comfortable with strangers. Both of these phenomena illustrate
what trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe?
supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.
a psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is
weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.
tracy and Shahid are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Shahid is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate
differences in temperament
freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected
what do the textbook authors identify as the most problematic element of Wakefield's definition of mental disorder?
we have yet to discover the dysfunction that underlies most mental disorders.
cicero was feeling depressed. He sought help from Hippocrates. Hippocrates would probably have
prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy
in ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was
thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god
Children from lower-SES families
are less likely to show ill effects of SES status if they possess a high IQ and develop healthy attachments to adults and peers.
What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock?
Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.
Which of the following did Freud believe played a causal role in the development of most forms of psychopathology?
Which of the following psychodynamic elements of the personality can be described as impulsive and selfish?
Learning not to do something because you are punished when you do it is an example of
The effects of early social deprivation
are explained differently by the various psychosocial perspectives.
During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as
Archaeology and early writing indicate that the first people to think that the brain was the site of mental functions were the
Todd and his siblings have parents who are physically abusive to each other. When they fight, they expect Todd to stay quiet and keep the other children under control. They allow the other children to cry and hide, but Todd must stay in the room with them and referee. This is an example of
a nonshared environmental influence
In 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that
unconcious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders
A child consistently identified as behaviorally inhibited is most likely to
be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder as an adult
Finding meaning in life and dealing with death form core values in which of the following perspectives?
Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means
the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness
A significant positive correlation is found between variables x and y. Which of the following may be safely inferred?
as x increases, y increases
Fred refuses to speak at school, although he speaks normally at home. His therapist plans out a treatment where Fred is given a gold star every time he answers his teacher, and he can then trade in his stars for prizes. Fred begins speaking in class. The therapist then tells the teacher to stop the program for a couple of weeks. Fred stopped talking during that time. The teacher then starting giving Fred stars again, and Fred again began to talk. This is an example of
an ABAB experimental desgin study
Wakefield's conception of "mental disorder" included the idea of ________________as most central to diagnosis.
If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that
the concordance for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordancecrate for dizygotic twins
To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use
a control group
The disorder Koro, where males fear that their genitals have retracted into their body, possibly leading to death, is similar to the episodes of mass madness during the Black Death because
both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?
when a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost
beleived that mental patients were illl and needed to be treated as such - with kindness and caring
Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being?
in most prospective studies
children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up
When comparing modern concepts of abnormal behavior with those of ancient civilizations, we find
some striking similiarities
Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA are all
neurotransmitters that are involoved in psychopathology
Lasting negative effects of abuse on psychological functioning are most likely when the abuse occurs in
________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.
Who is credited with making the first major steps toward understanding the psychological factors involved in mental illness?
Dr. Luigi has discovered that the more spaghetti people eat, the less likely they are to be diagnosed with depression. Based on this finding, what statement can be made about the relationship between spaghetti and depression?
there is a negative correlation between spaghetti and depression
What does the case of JGH, a Native American elder, illustrate?
A person may focus on somatic symptoms, rather than mood, when depressed.
Which method for studying genetic influences fails to control for the possible effect of sharing a common environment?
family history or pedigree method
a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis
Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States?
Practically speaking, "abnormal" behavior means
unusual behaviors that are not consistent with the norms of the society in which they are displayed
A major scientific problem with analogue studies is
the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occuring phenomenon
According to cognitive theorists, a lot of information that contributes to a person's psychopathology
is processed at a nonconcious level
Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of
unresoved conflicts between the id, the ego, and the superego
The central principle of classical conditioning is that
after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.
After cheating on her husband, Julia accused her husband of cheating on her. Such behavior is explained by which of the following defense mechanism?
Attractive children and unattractive babies tend to be treated differently. In other words, an infant's physical phenotype may alter how others respond to him or her. What type of genotype-environment correlation is this an example of?
Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders?
What do the three psychosocial viewpoints addressed in this chapter all have in common?
all emphasize the impact of early experiences
Normally, the enzyme monoamine oxidase is involved in the breaking down of some neurotransmitters. This process is called
a psychologist who studied the relationship between sociocultural factors and mental disorders would be most likely to study
poverty and racial discrimination
In Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problem. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the ________ group.
The four parenting styles described in the text differ along two dimensions, warmth and control. The style associated with the most positive developmental outcome is best described as ________ in warmth and ________ in control
high, moderately high
The use of malarial fever to treat paresis
represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine
The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as
An elementary school principal wants to know the best predictors of juvenile delinquency and dropping out of school in high school so she can provide preventive interventions. Your best advice is:
'the best predictor is aggression toward peers, which leads to peer rejection"
It is a hot day and a child sprays you with a garden hose. You might react with amusement (and even thanks!) or considerable anger. The fact that one event can be interpreted in different ways is central to the ________ approach to therapy.
childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. Childhood abuse would best be described as a
distal contributory cause
why was the malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis
the fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms
which of the following would be characteristic of the treatment provided by the first mental hospitals or sanatoria used by the Romans and Greeks
warm baths and massages
which of the following occurred in the late twentieth century
a movement of the mentally ill from instituions to the community
In the United States, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the
Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders
new perceptions and experiences tend to be worked into our existing schemas, even if the new information must be distorted to fit them. this process is called
who was one of the first physicians in the early 1500's to criticize the idea that mental illness was due to demon possession (although he did believe the moon influenced the brain)?
the central principle of operant conditioning is that
the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated
dr. simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. Which of the following treatments is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression?
a combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs
a major finding from the National Comodbidity Survey was that
over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had wo o more comorbid disorders
which of the following is not an example of the three phenomena that the term resilience has been used to describe
after failing french the first time, Carl did not earn a passing grade when he took the course for a second time
in the diathesis-stress model, a stressor is
a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms
what is the most important limitation of correlational studies
the cannot determine cause and effect
why are correlational (observational) research designs often used in abnormal psychology?
it is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulatethe variables involved in abnormal psychology
a psychologist who takes an eclectic approach is most likely to make which of the following statements
i will accept any explanation from psychoanalytic to biological as long as it works
which of the following is a criticism of traditional psychoanalytic theory
lack of scientific evidence
a researcher says, "these studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background facots they expect to find. however, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the disorder emerges." What kind of research strategy is the researcher referring to?
what is trephining
an ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits
who studied how to deal with mentally ill criminals and concluded that such individuals were not responsible for their actions
the trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that
people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis
"Bedlam" in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that
exhibited their patients for profit
the genetic influences that determine behavior may never be fully understood due to
the likelihood that most behaviors are determined by the interaction of many genes and the environment
which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior in the Middle Ages is accurate
Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches
which perspective or viewpoint focuses on intrapsychic conflicts as the cause of psychopathology
what is the value of using an ABAB design
the effects of a single form of treatment are studied twice in the same subject
researchers have observed that women who wear bras for more than 16 hours a day are more liekly to develop breast cancer than those who spend less time in a bra. In other words, there is a correlation between wearinga bra and breast cancer. Based on this finding, which of the following statements is true
some additinoal variable may serve to explain the relationship obseved between wearing a bra and developing cancer
all of the following are disadvantages of classifying and diagnosing mental disorders except
if fraternal (or dizygotic) twins are more likely to be concordant for a trait than other siblings, can it be concluded that the higher cocordance rate is due to the greater degree of genetic relatedness?
no, because fraternal twins are no more gentically alike than other siblings
the DSM acknowledges that
a DSM diagnosis is only the first step, much more is needed to determine treatment
while neurological assessment procedures evaluate the brain's physical properties, neuropsychological assessment focuses on
making a new experience fit existing frameworks is associated with ________; changing our existing frameworks to incorporate a new experience is associated with ________.
which of the following best illustrates high reliability
two interviewers diagnose the same disorder after talking to the same client
alicia developed a fear of spiders after being bitten by one. However, she has no problems looking at pictures of spiders. This is an example of