BSC 1005

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Prokaryotes

no nucleus, bacteria is an example

Eukaryotes

has a nucleus

Archaea

Kingdom Archaebacteria, prokaryote

Bacteria

Kingdom Eubacteria, prokaryote

Eukarya

4 kingdoms, eukaryote

Kingdom Protista

algae, amoeba (autotrophs and heterotrophs)

Kingdom Fungi

mold, mushrooms (heterotrophs)

Kingdom Plantae

plants (autotrophs)

Kingdom Animalia

animals (autotrophs)

Species

a group of interbreeding individuals

Genus

includes 1 or more species

Family

includes genera

Order

includes many families

Class

includes all orders

Phylum/division

includes classes

Kingdom

includes phylum

Domain

includes kingdom (3 domains)

Biological Hierarchy

Drunk King Philip Came Over For Good Soup

Prediction

A claim about what can be expected in nature, based on the premises of a theory or hypothesis

Deductive reasoning

using a general idea to make a conclusion about a specific case

Test

an attempt to produce actual observations that match predicted or expected observations

Data

experimental results

Report

a statement about whether a theory or hypothesis should be accepted, modified or rejected, based on tests of predictions derived from it

Molecular Biology

study of structure and function of biological macromolecules

Cell Biology

study of cel structure and how they function

Taxonomy

classification and naming

Genetics

science of heredity

Zoology

study of animals

Botany

study of plants

Anatomy

study of internal structure

Physiology

study of plant/animal function

Ecology

study of the interaction of living organisms

Element

substance that cannot be broken down to other substances. pure substances, each consisting only of atoms that have the same number of protons in their nucleus.

Trace Elements

elements required by organisms in minute quantities

Protons

(+) located in nucleus

Electrons

(-) located in the outer ring around nucleus

Neutrons

(no charge) located in nucleus

Atomic Number

the number of protons

Mass Number

the number of protons and neutrons

Isotopes

some atoms of a given element have more neutrons than other atoms of the same elements

Radioactive Isotopes

nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy

Electron Orbitals

electron shell made of orbitals, each orbital holds 2 electrons, each shell can hold 4 orbitals.

Molecule

two or more atoms bonded together

Compound

a substance consisting of 2 or more different elements in a fixed ratio

Mixture

two or more elements intermingled in proportions that can vary

Solution

A liquid mixture

Acid

donate H+, have a pH<7

Base

accept H+, has a pH>7

Buffers

a weak acid and base that forms to counter slight shifts of pH

Organic Compounds

compounds found in living organisms, main 2 are carbon and hydrogen

Carbohydrates

Polymer, saccharide is the monomer. The most abundant biological molecule, used as structural materials, transportable packets of energy, and stored forms of energy. Three classes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

Lipids

polymer, fatty acids are the monomer. Greasy of oily compounds, readily dissolve in one another, but not so in water. Certain lipids with fatty acid tail form the main reservoirs of stored energy, structural materials in cell membranes and surface coatings

Proteins

polymer, amino acids are the monomer. most diverse of all biological molecules. connected by peptide bonds. amino acid sequence is unique for each kind of protein, cells build diverse proteins from a pool of only 20 amino acids

Nucleic Acids

polymer, nucleotides are the monomer. Chains of units or single unit consist of 5-carbon sugar, one phosphate, and a nitrogen-containing base

Monosaccharide

one monomer of sugar: glucose, ribose, deoxy ribose, fructose, galactose

Disaccharides

two monomers of sugar: lactose, sucrose, maltose

Polysaccharides

many monomers of sugar: starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitin

Starch

storage carbohydrate in plants (potato, rice)

Cellulose

structural carb (cell wall of plants)

Glycogen

animal sugar storage

Chitin

structural material in insect bodies, used in surgical thread

Lactose

found in carbohydrates, disaccharide, composed of glucose +galactose

Sucrose

found in carbohydrates, disaccharide, composed of glucose + fructose

Maltose

found in carbohydrates, disaccharide, composed of glucose + glucose

Waxes

cover plants, on animals they protect, lubricate and repel water

Steroid

lipids without fatty acid tail, cholesterol is a steroid, forms the precursor for sex hormones

Steroidal Hormones

6 hormones, help in the absorption of vitamin D

Anabolic Steroids

synthetic variants of male hormone, testosterone, used to buff up men

Structural Protein

form the structural elements of hair and nails (keratin) and bones and cartilage (collagen)

Transport proteins

govern many cell activities like oxygen transport (hemoglobin in red blood cells), tissue defense (antibodies), increase in rate of reactions (enzymes), control of glucose metabolism (insulin)

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate, energy currency of the cell. 3 phosphate groups that help in storage, transmission and translation of genetic information

Cell

Smallest unit that retains characteristics of life; all organisms are composed of one or more cells

Organelle

membrane bound structure with a specific function; combination of several molecules

Cytoplasm

everything enclosed by the plasma membrane except the nucleus. Includes membrane bound organelles and the endomembrane system

Ribosomes

main function is protein synthesis; spherical, single membrane bodies; free or bound to ER

Plasma membrane

thin, outermost bilipid layer made of phosphlipids; cell's outermost membrane

Flagella/pili/cilia

NOT organelles, motile structures that project from the surface of many cells and beat in distinct patterns (make cells move)

Nucleus

control center of the cell' most conspicuous organelle that houses the cell's DNA

Nucleoli (nucleolus)

containing RNA and proteins; DNA and associated proteins in the form of chromatin

Nuclear Matrix

viscous fluid inside the nucleus

Nuclear Envelope

a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes and extending from the nuclear envelope that helps with the synthesis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification. Rough ER: ribosomes attached; Smooth ER: ribosomes are free

Golgi apparatus

organelle that modifies/secretes polypeptides and lipids, also sorts and packages the finished products into vesicles

Lysosomes

enzyme filled vesicle that helps with intracellular digestion in the cell. "suicide capsule;" only found in animal cells.

Peroxisomes

enzyme filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances.

Mitochondria

two-membrane bound organelle, helps in cellular respiration; inner membrane is folded into finger like cristae and has matrix and produces ATP

Cytoskeleton

consists of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. maintains cell shape and aids in cell division

Centrosomes and centrioles

help as girders of cytoplasm; support cytoplasm

Plastids

an organelle found only in plants that functions in photosynthesis or storage. ex: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, thylakoids, grana and stroma

Chloroplast

makes plants green (leaves and stems) and helps in photosynthesis; some starch storage

Chromoplast

makes plants colored (petals, flowers, fruit)

Amyloplasts

stores starch, white in color, found in roots

Thylakods

cross membrane attached to grana

Grana (Granum)

where pigments are located, gives color to plastids

Stroma

sticky fluid, matrix of plant cell

Central vacuoles

disposal site for metabolic by-products, pigments float around in sacs in vacuoles; helps with cell growth (vacuoles gain water: cell grows; vacuoles lose water: cell shrinks)

Cell Wall

additional structure outside plasma membrane (outer boundary)

Primary Wall

mostly cellulose

Secondary Wall

cellulose + lignin, comes later on in plant life; takes up cytoplasm and plasma membrane and the cell is somewhat dead

Lignin

gives brown color to cells

Middle Lamella

pectin; cement that brings two things together, found between 2 cell walls

Junctions

helps cells communicate with each other; animal cells are connected by junctions

Plasmodesmata

found in plant cells, connection between cell walls

Biology

study of life

Organisms

any living thing, unicellular or multicellular

Taxon

a group of organisms

Autotrophs

self-feeders, organisms that can make their own food, sometimes through photosynthesis (plants, algae, bacteria)

Heterotrophs

other feeders, organisms that feed on other organisms

Atom

smallest unit of an element

Molecule

made up of atoms (DNA, protein)

Tissue

group of cells (blood tissues, muscle tissues)

Organ

made up of tissue (stomach, liver)

Organ System

made up of several organs (digestive system)

Individual

made up of different organ systems (squirrel, frog tree)

Population

group of individuals

Community

different populations in the same area

Ecosystem

communities plus the environment

Biosphere

all regions of the earth that contain living things

Metabolism

ability to respire, photosynthesize, digest

Homeostasis

sensing and responding to the environment; maintenance of internal environment within range for suitable cell activities

Mutation

sudden change in the genes (sickle cell anemia, nectarines)

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