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sporophyte

diploid phase of plant; produces spores

gametophyte

haploid phase of plant; produces gametes

xylem

vascular tissue; carries water from roots to rest of plant

phloem

vascular tissue; carries sugars from leaves to rest of plant

root

underground organ; absorbs water & minerals

leaf

photosynthetic organ; contains bundles of vascular tissues

vein

cluster of vascular tissues in leaves

stem

supporting structure connecting roots & leaves; transports water & nutrients between them

rhizome

underground stem in ferns

frond

large leaf of fern; may be divided into pinnae

gymnosperm

seed plant; bears seeds directly on surface of cones

angiosperm

flowering plant; bears seeds within layer of tissue

cone

seed-bearing structure of gymnosperms

flower

seed-bearing structure of angiosperms

pollen grain

male gametophyte in seed plants

seed

embryo of living plant; encased in protective covering, surrounded by food supply

seed coat

surrounds & protects plant embryo, keeps it from drying out

fruit

wall of tissue surrounding angiosperm seed

monocot

angiosperm whose seeds have 1 cotyledon

dicot

angiosperm whose seeds have 2 cotyledons

cotyledon

1st leaf produced by embryo of seed plant

vascular bundle

plant stem structure; contains xylem & phloem tissue

primary growth

plant growth pattern; occurs at tip of roots & shoots

secondary growth

plant growth pattern where stems increase in width

mesophyll

specialized ground tissue; makes up bulk of leaf, performs photosynthesis

stoma

opening on underside of leaf; allows O2 & CO2 to diffuse in & out

guard cell

specialized cell in leaf epidermis; controls opening & closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure

cuticle

waxy layer often covering leaf epidermis to reduce water loss

transpiration

loss of water from a plant through its leaves

sepal

outermost circle of flower parts; encloses & protects bud

stamen

male part of flower; composed of anther + filament

filament

long thin flower structure; supports anther

anther

flower structure; produces haploid male gametophytes (pollen grains)

carpel

innermost part of flower (also called pistil); produces female gametophytes; composed of ovary + style + stigma

ovary

flower structure containing ovules; produces female gametophytes

style

narrow stalk of carpel

stigma

sticky portion at top of style where pollen grains land

phototropism

tendency of plants to grow towards light source

gravitropism

response of plants to the force of gravity

photoperiodism

response of plants to periods of light & darkness

capillary action

tendency of water to rise in a thin tube

petal

brightly colored structure just inside the sepels; attracts insects and other pollinators to a flower

root cap

tough structure that protects a root as it forces its way through the soil

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